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  • Open Access


    Research on the Measurement and Countermeasure of Coal Overcapacity in China: Based on Panel Data of 25 Provinces in China

    Rijia Ding1, Xingyao Zhou1,*, Rui Zhang1, Wanqiu Lu2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.1, pp. 27-39, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010372

    Abstract Coal is the main energy source in China. At present, the coal overcapacity is still serious in China. Accurately measuring the degree of China’s coal overcapacity can scientifically resolve the overcapacity, and is the premise of guiding the healthy development of coal industry and energy system. Using the translog cost function and the panel data of coal industry in all provinces of China from 2002 to 2011 and from 2012 to 2016, the research measures and compares the coal production capacity of “golden decade” and “cold winter” in China. The results show that: (1) The More >

  • Open Access


    Protocol for the reduction of costs in habanero chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) micropropagation

    Jimarez-Montiel MJ1, A Robledo-Paz1, VM Ordaz-Chaparro2, LI Trejo-Tellez2, JC Molina-Moreno1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.87, pp. 94-104, 2018, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2018.87.094

    Abstract An alternative method for improving the production of habanero chili is the tissue culture technique; however, the gelling agent, the high salt and sucrose concentrations used in the culture media raise production costs and limit the adaptation of the regenerated plants to greenhouse or field conditions. In this study, the effect of the substrates perlite-coconut fiber, coconut fiber-volcanic rock, vermiculite-perlite, and perlite-volcanic rock in conjunction with various culture media in in vitro plant regeneration from embryos was evaluated. The differentiation of adventitious shoots on substrates was scarcely observed or non-existent. Inducing the formation of shoots on… More >

  • Open Access


    Effects of prenatal stress on male offspring sexual maturity


    BIOCELL, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 67-74, 2007, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2007.31.067

    Abstract Prenatal stimulations have been shown to have long-term effects on at reproductive activity. We evaluated the influence of the prenatal stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in male offsprings from mothers with high number of offsprings per litter (HNL) and low number of offsprings per litter (LNL) after hypothesizing that the number of offsprings per litter may modify the effect of the prenatal stress on the HPG of adult offsprings. Pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. Immobilization (IMO) stress was used, 30 min, 3 times per week, from the 5th to 21st day… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis Tools for Robust and Cost Efficient Design of Composite Structures

    Raimund Rolfes, Steffen Czichon, Benedikt Kriegesmann, Heiko Kruger, Matthias Vogler, Eelco Jansen

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.16, No.3, pp. 69-70, 2011, DOI:10.3970/icces.2011.016.069

    Abstract Recent work carried out at the Institute of Structural Analysis of the Leibniz University Hannover in the field of composite materials and composite structures is presented. Analysis tools for composite materials and structures are under development, which enable a robust and cost efficient design. Three key areas for design and analysis of composite structures will be covered in the presentation, namely strength, stability, and fatigue analysis.
    Predicting the material properties of imperfect composite structures with manufacturing defects such as waviness defects or porosities is still an open challenge. Several analytical approaches exist to determine the… More >

  • Open Access


    Physiological Cost Optimization for Bipedal Modeling with Optimal Controller Design

    A. M. Mughal1, K. Iqbal2

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 215-220, 2008, DOI:10.3970/icces.2008.006.215

    Abstract Human voluntary movements are complex physical phenomenon and there are several physiological factors that control the movement and transient response, steady state position, speed of motion and other characteristics. Many experimentalists described variety of variables important for human balance and movement such as center of mass, center of pressure, ground reaction forces etc. In this study, we discuss a bipedal model for biomechanical sit to stand movement with optimal controller design. The cost optimization for gain scheduling is based upon physiological variables of center of mass, head position, and ground reaction forces. Our simulation results More >

  • Open Access


    Comparison of Fabrication Cost of Composite Bipolar Plates Made by Compression Molding and by Machining

    H.S. Lee1, W.S. Chu1, Y.C. Kang1, H.J. Kang1, S.H. Ahn2

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 195-200, 2007, DOI:10.3970/icces.2007.004.195

    Abstract The fuel cell is one of promising environment-friendly energy sources for the next generation. The bipolar plate is a major component of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, and it takes a large portion of stack volume, weight and cost. In this study, as alternative materials for bipolar plate of PEM fuel cells, graphite composites were fabricated by compression molding and by machining. Graphite particles mixed with epoxy resin were used as the main substance to provide electric conductivity. Flow channels were fabricated by compression molding applying design of experiments (DOE) in order More >

  • Open Access


    Defense Strategies Against Network Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems with Analysis Cost Constraint Based on Honeypot Game Model

    Wen Tian1, Xiaopeng Ji1,*, Weiwei Liu1, Guangjie Liu1, Rong Lin1,2, Jiangtao Zhai3, Yuewei Dai3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.1, pp. 193-211, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05290

    Abstract Cyber-physical system (CPS) is an advanced system that integrats physical processes, computation and communication resources. The security of cyber-physical systems has become an active research area in recent years. In this paper, we focus on defensive strategies against network attacks in CPS. We introduce both low- and highinteraction honeypots into CPS as a security management tool deliberately designed to be probed, attacked and compromised. In addition, an analysis resource constraint is introduced for the purpose of optimizing defensive strategies against network attacks in CPS. We study the offensive and defensive interactions of CPS and model… More >

  • Open Access


    Fragility Assessment of Pre-Northridge Steel Moment Frames Using Finite-Length Plastic Hinge Elements and Concentrated Plasticity Fracture Elements

    Filipe L. A. Ribeiro1,*, Andre R. Barbosa2, Luis C. Neves3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.120, No.3, pp. 657-676, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.06296

    Abstract Although pre-Northridge earthquake steel moment resisting frame buildings have been shown to be susceptible to brittle connection failures, they still represent a large fraction of the existing steel buildings in the United States of America. In this study, the performance of the 3- and 9-story Los Angeles pre-Northridge SAC buildings are analyzed considering ductile and brittle beam-column connection failures, and their uncertainty. This paper contributes to understanding the influence of uncertainty associated with connections brittle fracture on building interstory deformation capacity and its impact on bias and variability of fragility functions and loss assessment. The More >

  • Open Access


    An Incremental Kriging Method for Sequential Optimal Experimental Design

    Yaohui Li1,2, Yizhong Wu1,3, Zhengdong Huang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.97, No.4, pp. 323-357, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2014.097.323

    Abstract Kriging model, which provides an exact interpolation and minimizes the error estimates, is a highly-precise global approximation model in contrast with other traditional response surfaces. Therefore, sequential exploratory experimental design (SEED) with Kriging model is crucial for globally approximating a complex black-box function. However, the more sampling points are, the longer time it would take to update the Kriging model during sequential exploratory design. This paper, therefore, proposes a new construction method called incremental Kriging method (IKM) to improve the constructing efficiency with just a little and controllable loss of accuracy for Kriging model. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Identification of Cavities in a Three-Dimensional Layer by Minimization of an Optimal Cost Functional Expansion

    A.E. Martínez-Castro1, I.H. Faris1, R. Gallego1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.87, No.3, pp. 177-206, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2012.087.177

    Abstract In this paper, the identification of hidden defects inside a three-dimen -sional layer is set as an Identification Inverse Problem. This problem is solved by minimizing a cost functional which is linearized with respect to the volume defects, leading to a procedure that requires only computations at the host domain free of defects. The cost functional is stated as the misfit between experimental and computed displacements and spherical and/or ellipsoidal cavities are the defects to locate. The identification of these cavities is based on the measured displacements at a set of points due to time-harmonic… More >

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