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  • Open Access


    Multi-Gigabit CO-OFDM System over SMF and MMF Links for 5G URLLC Backhaul Network

    Amir Haider1, MuhibUr Rahman2, Tayyaba Khan3, Muhammad Tabish Niaz1, Hyung Seok Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.67, No.2, pp. 1747-1758, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015611

    Abstract The 5G cellular network aims at providing three major services: Massive machine-type communication (mMTC), ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC), and enhanced-mobile-broadband (eMBB). Among these services, the URLLC and eMBB require strict end-to-end latency of 1 ms while maintaining 99.999% reliability, and availability of extremely high data rates for the users, respectively. One of the critical challenges in meeting these requirements is to upgrade the existing optical fiber backhaul network interconnecting the base stations with a multigigabit capacity, low latency and very high reliability system. To address this issue, we have numerically analyzed 100 Gbit/s coherent optical… More >

  • Open Access


    A Review of Leakage and Dispersion of LNG on the Ground

    Shi-er Dong1, Yiqing He1,*, Jingya Dong2, Zhouyu Peng3, Guohua Fu3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.1, pp. 103-118, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.012362

    Abstract Based on the analysis of the whole process of LNG spill on land, the research methods of LNG pool expansion and heavy gas diffusion are summarized and analyzed. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to data on spill of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the spill of LNG onshore, as well as experiments and numerical study on heavy gas dispersion. Pool boiling and turbulence model are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion. Although there have been significant progress in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Study on the Gas Leakage and Dispersion at the Street Intersection of a Building Group

    Weitao Zhang1, 2, Mengqi Liu3, Kaiyi Wang4, Fan Zhang2, Lei Hou1, *

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.123, No.3, pp. 1247-1266, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2020.09297

    Abstract Accidents involving natural gas leakage and dispersion pose a significant threat to human life and property. This threat is especially relevant at the street intersection at which dense buildings, heavy traffic flow, and complex underground pipe networks meet. Scholars have conducted numerous studies on gas leakage and dispersion, but investigations of natural gas leakage and dispersion at the street intersection of a building group are not in-depth. In this paper, we presented a three-dimensional (3D) physical model based on the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology to study the natural gas leakage and dispersion at the… More >

  • Open Access


    Plant Oil-Based Waterborne Polyurethanes: A Brief Review

    Verónica L. Mucci1, M. E. Victoria Hormaiztegui2, Mirta I. Aranguren1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 579-601, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09455

    Abstract The increasing pressure from consumers and policy makers to reduce the use of synthetic polymers, whose production contributes to the depletion of non-renewable resources and are usually non- biodegradable, has prompted the efforts to find suitable bio-based sources for the production of polymers. Vegetable oils have been a frequently spotted in this search because they are versatile, highly available and a low cost liquid biosource, which can be used in the synthesis of a wide plethora of different polymers and reactive monomers. Following the same idea of reducing the environmental stress, the traditional polyurethanes that… More >

  • Open Access


    Mnesithea selloana: morphology of sinflorescence, maturity and caryopsis quality

    Galussi AA1,2, ME Moya1,2, LR Zimmermann1, FG Marchese1,2, YG Gillij1,2, F Torres1,2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 255-260, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.255

    Abstract Mnesithea selloana (known as cola de largarto, teyú ruguay) is a spring-summer-fall species that flowers and fructifies in that period; it has good forage quality, and it is in danger of extinction in the natural grasslands at the study region. The objectives of this work were to study the sinflorescence morphology, and the maturity and quality of the caryopsis to know its reproductive aspects in relation to the dissemination of this especies in grazing areas. The sinflorescence was studied in two plants during a period of 45 days, between October and December 2010, within an experimental… More >

  • Open Access


    West Indian avocado: where did it originate?

    Galindo-Tovar1 ME, AM Arzate-Fernández2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.79, pp. 203-207, 2010, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2010.79.203

    Abstract Origin of West Indian avocado has been explained by current-day factors, such as abundance patterns; however, it is still unclear where it originated. Anyhow, there is a history behind the species that reflects, in one way or another, the present geographic distribution and species characteristics. We examined paleohistorical and paleoecological data to explore the West Indian avocado origin. Our results suggest that West Indian avocado originated by domestication and ecological adaptation in the Maya Lowland area; this is where this botanical variety of avocado has an ancient history. More >

  • Open Access


    A Possible Reason About Origin of Singularity and Anomalous Dispersion in Peridynamics

    Xinfeng Wang1, Zaixing Huang1,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 385-398, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.06936

    Abstract In the benchmark problems of peridynamics, there are some eccentric results, for example, singularity of uniaxial tension and anomalous dispersion of wave. The reasons to give rise to these results are investigated. We calculated local tension and wave of an infinite rod after adding a divergence of local stress in the peridynamic motion equation. The acquired results verify that the singularity in the peridynamic solution of local tension problem and anomalous dispersion of peridynamic wave are all eliminated. Therefore, the anomalous features of some peridynamic solutions likely stem from the lack of local stress characterizing More >

  • Open Access


    Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Riesz Space Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equations with Delay

    Mahdi Saedshoar Heris1, Mohammad Javidi1, Bashir Ahmad2,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.121, No.1, pp. 249-272, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.08080

    Abstract In this paper, we propose numerical methods for the Riesz space fractional advection-dispersion equations with delay (RFADED). We utilize the fractional backward differential formulas method of second order (FBDF2) and weighted shifted Grünwald difference (WSGD) operators to approximate the Riesz fractional derivative and present the finite difference method for the RFADED. Firstly, the FBDF2 and the shifted Grünwald methods are introduced. Secondly, based on the FBDF2 method and the WSGD operators, the finite difference method is applied to the problem. We also show that our numerical schemes are conditionally stable and convergent with the accuracy More >

  • Open Access


    On Axisymmetric Longitudinal Wave Propagation in Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    S.D. Akbarov1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 63-85, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2013.033.063

    Abstract An attempt is made into the investigation of longitudinal axisymmetric wave propagation in the DWCNT with the use of the exact equations of motion of the linear theory of elastodynamics. The DWCNT is modeled as concentricallynested two circular hollow cylinders between which there is free space. The difference in the radial displacements of these cylinders is coupled with the van der Waals forces and it is assumed that full slipping conditions occur on the inner surface of the outer tube and on the outer surface of the inner tube. Numerical results on the influence of More >

  • Open Access


    Elastic wave propagation in fiber reinforced composite materials with non-uniform distribution of fibers

    J.T. Verbis1, S.V. Tsinopoulos2, D. Polyzos2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.3, No.6, pp. 803-814, 2002, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2002.003.803

    Abstract In the present work the iterative effective medium approximation (IEMA) is appropriately used for wave dispersion and attenuation predictions in fiber-reinforced composites that microscopically exhibit a non-uniform fiber distribution. Two types of composites with such irregular topology of fibers are considered. The first contains a regular distribution of clusters of fibers embedded in a composite matrix with uniformly distributed fibers, and the second a uniform distribution of matrix-rich inclusions embedded in a fiber-rich regular composite medium. The resulting from the application of the IEMA scattering problems are solved numerically by means of a two dimensional More >

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