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  • Open Access


    NFT Security Matrix: Towards Modeling NFT Ecosystem Threat

    Peng Liao1, Chaoge Liu2, Jie Yin1,3,*, Zhi Wang2, Xiang Cui2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.3, pp. 3255-3285, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.043855

    Abstract Digital assets have boomed over the past few years with the emergence of Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs). To be specific, the total trading volume of digital assets reached an astounding $55.5 billion in 2022. Nevertheless, numerous security concerns have been raised by the rapid expansion of the NFT ecosystem. NFT holders are exposed to a plethora of scams and traps, putting their digital assets at risk of being lost. However, academic research on NFT security is scarce, and the security issues have aroused rare attention. In this study, the NFT ecological process is comprehensively explored. This… More >

  • Open Access


    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alleviates Salt-Alkali Stress Demage on Syneilesis aconitifolia

    Linlin Fang, Jiamei Xu, Chunxue Yang*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.12, pp. 3195-3209, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.043049

    Abstract Syneilesis aconitifolia is a potential ground cover and decorative material in gardens, which exhibits a strong salt-alkali tolerance, and also has medicinal value. In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi community in the soil surrounding S. aconitifolia roots in the Songnen saline-alkali grassland was used as the inoculation medium for a pot cultivation experiment. After normal culture for 90 days, NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions were applied to subject plants to salt or alkali stress. Solution concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mmol/L were applied for 10 days, and mycorrhizal colonization, biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll concentration,… More >

  • Open Access


    A New Exploration of Artificially Induced Spalted Wood of Two Fungi: Hypoxylon and Sistotrema

    Yan Yan, Junpeng Dong, Haibo Hu, Susu Yang, Lin Liu, Lei Qin*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.11, pp. 3907-3916, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.028099

    Abstract One strain of Hypoxylon sp. CXM-3 and one strain of Sistotrema brinkmannii CXM-4 were inoculated onto sterilized cherry, poplar, birch, and basswood sheets in a certain shape and incubated at constant temperature and humidity for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, to analyze whether the grain pattern formed by the zone lines was consistent with the predetermined pattern. The results showed that the zone lines of CXM-3 of Hypoxylon were free, delicate, and soft, with brown lines and black staining, mostly accompanied by black and brown dots, facets, and clusters, while the zone lines of CXM-4 of… More > Graphic Abstract

    A New Exploration of Artificially Induced Spalted Wood of Two Fungi: <i>Hypoxylon</i> and <i>Sistotrema</i>

  • Open Access


    Restructuring Tilth Layers Can Change the Microbial Community Structure and Affect the Occurrence of Verticillium Wilt in Cotton Field

    Ming Dong#, Yan Wang#, Shulin Wang, Guoyi Feng, Qian Zhang, Yongzeng Lin, Qinglong Liang, Yongqiang Wang*, Hong Qi*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.10, pp. 2841-2860, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.030465

    Abstract Restructuring tilth layers (RTL) is a tillage method that exchanges the 0–20 and 20–40 cm soil layers that can be applied during cotton cultivation to increase cotton yield, eliminate weeds and alleviate severe disease, including Verticillium wilt. However, the mechanism by which RTL inhibits Verticillium wilt is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of microbial communities after rotary tillage (CK) and RTL treatments to identify the reasons for the reduction of Verticillium wilt in cotton fields subjected to RTL. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to sequence the bacterial and fungal genes. The disease incidence and More >

  • Open Access


    In Vitro Synthetic Seed Production of Potato under Different Fungicide Levels and Storage Intervals

    Tahira Kalsoom1, Touqeer Ahmed1, Muhammad Azam Khan1, Mirza Hasanuzzaman2,*, Mukhtar Ahmed3,*, Stefaan P. O. Werbrouck4

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2429-2450, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.030846

    Abstract Potato propagation through tubers and seed is an inefficient way of propagation thus we propose an alternative method in this study which is in vitro propagation. Plantlets were raised from True Potato Seeds (TPS) in test tubes containing 10 mL of Murashige Skoog (MS) medium. Subculturing was done after every 21 days and after four subsequent subculturing, when there was an adequate quantity of stock material, uninodal cuttings of about 3–4 mm in length were prepared from in vitro proliferated potato plants by excising leaves of 1–2 mm on each side of the node. Prepared uninodal cuttings… More >

  • Open Access


    The Application of Fertilizer and AMF Promotes Growth and Reduces the Cadmium and Lead Contents of Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in a Copper Mining Area

    Jiaxin Chen1,#, Jiawei Guo1,#, Zhixin Yang1, Jiqing Yang2,*, Hengwen Dong3, Huiyun Wang3, Yalei Wang3, Fangdong Zhan1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 471-485, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023660

    Abstract Heavy metal-polluted soil was collected from the Pulang copper mine in Shangri-La City, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The effects of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) growth, root morphology, mineral nutrition and cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents were investigated by pot experiments. The results showed that both fertilizer and AMF significantly ameliorated the root morphology and mineral nutrition, reduced the Cd and Pb contents, and promoted the growth of ryegrass. Among all treatments, the combined application of organic–inorganic compound fertilizer with AMF had the highest effect, resulting… More >

  • Open Access


    Controlled-Release of Plant Volatiles: New Composite Materials of Porous Carbon-Citral and Their Fungicidal Activity against Exobasidium vexans

    Yaoguo Liu1, Yao Chen2, Huifang Liu2, Wei Chen1, Zhiwei Lei2, Chiyu Ma2, Jie Yin1, Wen Yang2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 811-823, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022594

    Abstract Citral (Eo) exhibits excellent fungicidal activities. However, it is difficult to maintain long-term fungicidal activity due to its strong volatility. Herein, a controlled-release strategy by using biomass-derived porous carbon (BC) was developed to overcome the drawback of Eo. New composite materials were prepared by loading Eo on tea stem porous carbon (BC@Eo), and their controlled-release fungicidal activity against Exobasidium vexans was assessed. BC with a large specific surface area of 1001.6 m2/g and mesoporous structure was fabricated through carbonization temperature of 700°C. The BC@Eo materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The results… More > Graphic Abstract

    Controlled-Release of Plant Volatiles: New Composite Materials of Porous Carbon-Citral and Their Fungicidal Activity against <i>Exobasidium vexans</i>

  • Open Access


    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization at Different Succession Stages in Songnen Saline-Alkali Grassland

    Yajie Liu, Yunhui Zhou, Linlin Fang, Chunxue Yang*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.1, pp. 297-310, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023152


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can form symbiosis with 90% of the vascular plants and play important roles in ecosystem. To realize the AM fungal colonization at different succession stages in saline-alkali land and screen AM fungi species with great functions, roots and soil samples were collected from the three succession stages of Songnen saline-alkali grassland. The soil properties and AM fungal colonization were measured, and the fungus distributed extensively in three stages was annotated by sequencing for AML1/AML2 target, subsequently, maize was selected as the host to verify its colonization. The results showed that the soil

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  • Open Access


    Effects of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Physiology of Viola prionantha under Salt Stress

    Yajie Liu, Linlin Fang, Wenna Zhao, Chunxue Yang*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.1, pp. 55-69, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022159

    Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi distribute widely in natural habits and play a variety of ecological functions. In order to test the physiological response to salt stress mediated by different AM fungi, Viola prionantha was selected as the host, the dominant AM fungus in the rhizosphere of V. philippica growing in Songnen saline-alkali grassland, Rhizophagus irregularis, and their mixtures were used as inoculants, and NaCl stress was applied after the roots were colonized. The results showed that V. philippica could be colonized by AM fungi in the field and the colonization rate ranged from 73.33% to 96.67%, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum was… More >

  • Open Access


    Advances in the studies on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of traditional Chinese medicinal plants


    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.12, pp. 2559-2573, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.022825


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reside in the rhizosphere and form mutualistic associations with plant roots. They promote photosynthesis, improve stress resistance, and induce secondary metabolite biosynthesis in host medicinal plants. The AM fungi that are symbiotic with medicinal plants comprise a wide array of species and have abundant germplasm resources. Though research on the AM fungi in medicinal plants began relatively recently, it has nonetheless become an investigative hot spot. Several scholars have explored the diversity and the growth-promoting effects of mycorrhizal fungi in hundreds of medicinal plants. Current research on symbiotic AM fungi in medicinal

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