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  • Open Access


    Machine Learning-based Detection and Classification of Walnut Fungi Diseases

    Muhammad Alyas Khan1, Mushtaq Ali1, Mohsin Shah2, Toqeer Mahmood3, Muneer Ahmad4, NZ Jhanjhi5, Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan6,*, Emad Sami Jaha7

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 771-785, 2021, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2021.018039

    Abstract Fungi disease affects walnut trees worldwide because it damages the canopies of the trees and can easily spread to neighboring trees, resulting in low quality and less yield. The fungal disease can be treated relatively easily, and the main goal is preventing its spread by automatic early-detection systems. Recently, machine learning techniques have achieved promising results in many applications in the agricultural field, including plant disease detection. In this paper, an automatic machine learning-based detection method for identifying walnut diseases is proposed. The proposed method first resizes a leaf’s input image and pre-processes it using… More >

  • Open Access


    Pathways of Phosphorus Absorption and Early Signaling between the Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plants

    Griselda Madrid-Delgado1,#, Marcos Orozco-Miranda1,#, Mario Cruz-Osorio1,#, Ofelia Adriana Hernández-Rodríguez1, Raúl Rodríguez-Heredia2, Melchor Roa-Huerta2, Graciela Dolores Avila-Quezada1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.5, pp. 1321-1338, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016174


    This review highlights the key role that mycorrhizal fungi play in making phosphorus (Pi) more available to plants, including pathways of phosphorus absorption, phosphate transporters and plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis, especially in conditions where the level of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) in the soil is low. Mycorrhizal fungi colonization involves a series of signaling where the plant root exudates strigolactones, while the mycorrhizal fungi release a mixture of chito-oligosaccharides and liposaccharides, that activate the symbiosis process through gene signaling pathways, and contact between the hyphae and the root. Once the symbiosis is established, the extraradical mycelium acts as

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  • Open Access


    Mycorrhizas Affect Polyphyllin Accumulation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis through Promoting PpSE Expression

    Hailing Li1,2, Lingfeng Xu1, Zhuowei Li1, Shunxin Zhao1, Dongqin Guo1, Lu Rui1,*, Nong Zhou1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.5, pp. 1535-1547, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015697

    Abstract Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, in which polyphyllin as the main medicinal component is an important secondary metabolite with bioactivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have multiple positive effects on plants, while it is not clear whether AMF increase the content of medicinal components in medicinal plants. In this study, a total of nine AMF treatments were laid to analyze the mycorrhizal effect on polyphyllin accumulation and PpHMGR and PpSE expression of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. AMF increased the content of polyphyllin in the cultivated variety with low relation to the increase of inoculation intensity. More >

  • Open Access


    Colonization Characteristics and Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Rhizosphere of Iris lactea in Songnen Saline-alkaline Grassland

    Chunxue Yang*, Yajie Liu, Wenna Zhao, Na Wang

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.3, pp. 719-729, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015024

    Abstract To understand arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi resources and develop AM fungal species in ornamental plants with saline-alkaline tolerances, Iris lactea, which grows in the Songnen saline-alkaline grassland with a high ornamental value, was selected as the experimental material, and the colonization characteristics of its roots and the AM fungal diversity in its rhizosphere were explored. The results of the observations and calculations of mycorrhizae from ten different samples showed that AM fungi colonized the roots of I. lactea and formed Arum-type mycorrhizal structures. There was a significant correlation between soil spore density and pH value, while the colonization… More >

  • Open Access


    Mycorrhizal Fungal Effects on Growth, Antioxidant Capacity, and Medicine Quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis

    Nong Zhou1,2, Lingfeng Xu1, Min Yang2, Dongqin Guo1, Qiuxia Gan, Jingjing Zhao1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.3, pp. 747-759, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.014858

    Abstract A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of two commercial strains composed of mulple arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on plant growth, antioxidant capacity, and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis in three subtropical soils from Wanzhou, Anshun and Baoshan in fields. The results showed that AMF inoculation enhanced the fungal colonization rate and activities of both succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, thereby, enhancing the mycorrhizal viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The concentrations of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, a+b and carotenoids), soluble sugar, soluble protein and photosynthetic capacity were higher in AMF-inoculated plants than in More >

  • Open Access


    Interaction between Earthworms and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Plants: A Review

    Lulu Meng1, A. K. Srivastava2, Kamil Kuča3, Bhoopander Giri4, Mohammed Mahabubur Rahman5, Qiangsheng Wu1,3,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.3, pp. 687-699, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015427

    Abstract Different kinds of soil animals and microorganisms inhabit the plant rhizosphere, which function closely to plant roots. Of them, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and earthworms play a critical role in sustaining the soil-plant health. Earthworms and AMF belong to the soil community and are soil beneficial organisms at different trophic levels. Both of them improve soil fertility and structural development, collectively promoting plant growth and nutrient acquisition capacity. Earthworm activities redistribute mycorrhizal fungi spores and give diversified effects on root mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Dual inoculation with both earthworms and AMF strongly magnifies the response on More >

  • Open Access


    A New Record of Aspergillus vadensis (Ascomycota) Isolated from Soil in Yunnan Province, China

    Sadia Nadir1,2,3, Sehroon Khan1, Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe1,2, Saowaluck Tibpromma1,2, Shahid Iqbal1,2, Jianchu Xu1,2,*, Peter Mortimer1,2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.3, pp. 1031-1039, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.012075

    Abstract During a survey of soil fungi in Yunnan Province, several isolates of Aspergillus were obtained. Based on morphology and molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), β-tubulin and calmodulin (CaM) genes sequences, two isolates were identified as Aspergillus vadensis (section Nigri). A phylogenetic tree, detailed descriptions, illustrations and scanned electron microscopy morphology are provided for the new isolates. This is the first record of A. vadensis from China. More >

  • Open Access


    Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity to Medicago Truncatula by AMF Involves the Changes of Cd Speciation in Rhizosphere Soil and Subcellular Distribution

    Yuying Jiang1,#, Renhua Huang1,#, Lei Jiang1, Ke Chen1,*, Wenkun Zhu2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.2, pp. 403-415, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.014376

    Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including heavy metals, drought or salinity exposure. However, the role of AMF in alleviation of soil cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity to plants is still largely unknown. In this study, Cd speciation in soil and subcellular distribution of Cd were used to characterize the roles of application AM fungi in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of Glomus mosseae in Cd contaminated soil (10 mg/Kg) significantly increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter in rhizosphere… More >

  • Open Access


    Interaction of Acaena elongata L. with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Phosphorus Limitation Conditions in a Temperate Forest

    Yasmin Vázquez-Santos1, Yuriana Martínez-Orea1, Javier Álvarez-Sánchez1, Noé Manuel Montaño2, Sara Lucía Camargo-Ricalde2, Silvia Castillo-Argüero1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.2, pp. 605-619, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.014208

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of Acaena elongata colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to different phosphorus (P) concentrations, as a measure of AMF dependency. A. elongata, is a species from soils where P availability is limited, such as temperate forests. Our research questions were: 1) How do different P concentrations affect the AMF association in Acaena elongata, and 2) How does the AMF association influence A. elongata’s growth under different P concentrations? A. elongata’s growth, P content in plant tissue, AMF colonization and dependency were measured under four P concentrations: control (0 g P kg−1More >

  • Open Access


    Natarajania thailandica sp. nov. (Stilbosporaceae, Diaporthales) from Thailand

    Monika C. Dayarathne1, Rashika S. Brahmanage2, Kevin D. Hyde2,3, Yong Wang1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.2, pp. 677-686, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.012897

    Abstract A fungus similar to the monotypic genus Natarajania, isolated from dead wood and collected in Thailand, is reported. Analysis of partial ribosomal LSU and a protein coding gene (RPB2) demonstrated that the new isolate belonged to Stilbosporaceae, Diaporthales and genetically different from N. indica. It is unique in producing synnematous conidiophores, smooth-walled conidiogenous cells and a flared collarette but lacks an elongated collar-canal which is distinct in the type species. Therefore, sequence data and morphological traits are used to introduce the new species, Natarajania thailandica. More >

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