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  • Open Access


    Unweighted Voting Method to Detect Sinkhole Attack in RPL-Based Internet of Things Networks

    Shadi Al-Sarawi1, Mohammed Anbar1,*, Basim Ahmad Alabsi2, Mohammad Adnan Aladaileh3, Shaza Dawood Ahmed Rihan2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 491-515, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041108

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of interconnected smart devices communicating and collecting data. The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the standard protocol for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in the IoT. However, RPL is vulnerable to various attacks, including the sinkhole attack, which disrupts the network by manipulating routing information. This paper proposes the Unweighted Voting Method (UVM) for sinkhole node identification, utilizing three key behavioral indicators: DODAG Information Object (DIO) Transaction Frequency, Rank Harmony, and Power Consumption. These indicators have been carefully selected based on their contribution to sinkhole attack detection and other relevant… More >

  • Open Access


    Wake-Up Security: Effective Security Improvement Mechanism for Low Power Internet of Things

    Sun-Woo Yun1, Na-Eun Park1, Il-Gu Lee1,2,*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 2897-2917, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.039940

    Abstract As time and space constraints decrease due to the development of wireless communication network technology, the scale and scope of cyberattacks targeting the Internet of Things (IoT) are increasing. However, it is difficult to apply high-performance security modules to the IoT owing to the limited battery, memory capacity, and data transmission performance depending on the size of the device. Conventional research has mainly reduced power consumption by lightening encryption algorithms. However, it is difficult to defend large-scale information systems and networks against advanced and intelligent attacks because of the problem of deteriorating security performance. In this study, we propose wake-up… More >

  • Open Access


    Real Time Vehicle Status Monitoring under Moving Conditions Using a Low Power IoT System

    M. Vlachos1,*, R. Lopardo2, A. Amditis1

    Journal on Internet of Things, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 235-261, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jiot.2022.040820

    Abstract In the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), the ever-increasing number of devices connected to the IoT networks also increases the energy consumption on the edge. This is prohibitive since the devices living on the edge are generally resource constrained devices in terms of energy consumption and computational power. Thus, trying to tackle this issue, in this paper, a fully automated end-to-end IoT system for real time monitoring of the status of a moving vehicle is proposed. The IoT system consists mainly of three components: (1) the ultra-low power consumption Wireless Sensor Node (WSN), (2) the IoT gateway and… More >

  • Open Access


    Control System Design for Low Power Magnetic Bearings in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Tinnawat Hongphan1, Matthew O. T. Cole1,*, Chakkapong Chamroon1, Ziv Brand2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.1, pp. 147-161, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.022821

    Abstract This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on controller design for the AMBs in a small-scale flywheel energy storage system, where the main goals are to achieve low energy consumption and improved rotordynamic stability. A H-infinity optimal control synthesis procedure is defined for the permanent-magnet-biased AMB-rotor system with 4 degrees of freedom. Through the choice of design weighting functions, notch filter characteristics are incorporated within the controller to reduce AMB current components caused by rotor vibration at the synchronous frequency and higher harmonics. Experimental tests are used to validate the controller design methodology and provide comparative results on performance… More >

  • Open Access


    An Optimized Deep-Learning-Based Low Power Approximate Multiplier Design

    M. Usharani1,*, B. Sakthivel2, S. Gayathri Priya3, T. Nagalakshmi4, J. Shirisha5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.2, pp. 1647-1657, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.027744

    Abstract Approximate computing is a popular field for low power consumption that is used in several applications like image processing, video processing, multimedia and data mining. This Approximate computing is majorly performed with an arithmetic circuit particular with a multiplier. The multiplier is the most essential element used for approximate computing where the power consumption is majorly based on its performance. There are several researchers are worked on the approximate multiplier for power reduction for a few decades, but the design of low power approximate multiplier is not so easy. This seems a bigger challenge for digital industries to design an… More >

  • Open Access


    Process Tolerant and Power Efficient SRAM Cell for Internet of Things Applications

    T. G. Sargunam1,2,*, Lim Way Soong1, C. M. R. Prabhu1, Ajay Kumar Singh3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 3425-3446, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023452

    Abstract The use of Internet of Things (IoT) applications become dominant in many systems. Its on-chip data processing and computations are also increasing consistently. The battery enabled and low leakage memory system at subthreshold regime is a critical requirement for these IoT applications. The cache memory designed on Static Random-Access Memory (SRAM) cell with features such as low power, high speed, and process tolerance are highly important for the IoT memory system. Therefore, a process tolerant SRAM cell with low power, improved delay and better stability is presented in this research paper. The proposed cell comprises 11 transistors designed with symmetric… More >

  • Open Access


    An Energy-Efficient 12b 2.56 MS/s SAR ADC Using Successive Scaling of Reference Voltages

    Hojin Kang1, Syed Asmat Ali Shah2, HyungWon Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 2127-2139, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025798

    Abstract This paper presents an energy efficient architecture for successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC). SAR ADCs with a capacitor array structure have been widely used because of its simple architecture and relatively high speed. However, conventional SAR ADCs consume relatively high energy due to the large number of capacitors used in the capacitor array and their sizes scaled up along with the number of bits. The proposed architecture reduces the energy consumption as well as the capacitor size by employing a new array architecture that scales down the reference voltages instead of scaling up the capacitor sizes.… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of Low Power Transmission Gate Based 9T SRAM Cell

    S. Rooban1, Moru Leela1, Md. Zia Ur Rahman1,*, N. Subbulakshmi2, R. Manimegalai3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 1309-1321, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023934

    Abstract Considerable research has considered the design of low-power and high-speed devices. Designing integrated circuits with low-power consumption is an important issue due to the rapid growth of high-speed devices. Embedded static random-access memory (SRAM) units are necessary components in fast mobile computing. Traditional SRAM cells are more energy-consuming and with lower performances. The major constraints in SRAM cells are their reliability and low power. The objectives of the proposed method are to provide a high read stability, low energy consumption, and better writing abilities. A transmission gate-based multi-threshold single-ended Schmitt trigger (ST) 9T SRAM cell in a bit-interleaving structure without… More >

  • Open Access


    Machine Learning-Based Pruning Technique for Low Power Approximate Computing

    B. Sakthivel1,*, K. Jayaram2, N. Manikanda Devarajan3, S. Mahaboob Basha4, S. Rajapriya5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.42, No.1, pp. 397-406, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021637

    Abstract Approximate Computing is a low power achieving technique that offers an additional degree of freedom to design digital circuits. Pruning is one of the types of approximate circuit design technique which removes logic gates or wires in the circuit to reduce power consumption with minimal insertion of error. In this work, a novel machine learning (ML) -based pruning technique is introduced to design digital circuits. The machine-learning algorithm of the random forest decision tree is used to prune nodes selectively based on their input pattern. In addition, an error compensation value is added to the original output to reduce an… More >

  • Open Access


    Performance Analysis of Low Power Interference Cancellation Architecture for OFDM System

    N. Manikanda Devarajan1,*, S. Thenmozhi2, K. Jayaram3, R. Saravanakumar4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.32, No.2, pp. 1167-1178, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021558

    Abstract Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a wireless communication technology that is used for highly reliable and high data rate communication. In a multi-user OFDM system, the interference has occurred in the receiver side between the consecutive OFDM symbols. This interference reduces the performance of the OFDM system. To achieve good quality in received symbols the interference level should be minimized. The conventional cancellation system requires higher interference reduction time and power. These limitations of the conventional interference cancellation architectures for OFDM systems are overcome by proposing efficient and low power interference cancellation architecture. Hence, this paper proposes a novel… More >

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