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  • Open Access


    Feature Selection for Detecting ICMPv6-Based DDoS Attacks Using Binary Flower Pollination Algorithm

    Adnan Hasan Bdair Aighuraibawi1,2, Selvakumar Manickam1,*, Rosni Abdullah3, Zaid Abdi Alkareem Alyasseri4,5, Ayman Khallel6, Dilovan Asaad Zebari9, Hussam Mohammed Jasim7, Mazin Mohammed Abed8, Zainb Hussein Arif7

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 553-574, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.037948

    Abstract Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of IP that goal to host 3.4 × 1038 unique IP addresses of devices in the network. IPv6 has introduced new features like Neighbour Discovery Protocol (NDP) and Address Auto-configuration Scheme. IPv6 needed several protocols like the Address Auto-configuration Scheme and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6). IPv6 is vulnerable to numerous attacks like Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) which is one of the most dangerous attacks executed through ICMPv6 messages that impose security and financial implications. Therefore, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a monitoring system… More >

  • Open Access


    Pollination Biology of the Endangered Herbal Medicines Dendrobium chrysotoxum (Orchidaceae)

    Kai Luo1, Yanbing Bai1, Yan Jiang1, Guiling Li1, Min Jia1, Yongguo He1, Zhijun Yao1, Ziwei Xiao1, Xiaoqiong Liu1, Wenjie Liu2, Shanshan Yin1,*, Zesheng Li1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1975-1986, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028232

    Abstract Pollination biology studies of the endangered herbal medicines Dendrobium chrysotoxum were conducted in natural pollination conditions using flower observation, pollinator observation and artificial pollination experiments. Populations of D. chrysotoxum with fragrance and nectar were pollinated by Ctenoplectra davidi Valhalla (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species. The floral structure of D. chrysotoxum adapted precisely to its pollinators. Flowers had a low capsule setting (0.17%) under natural conditions. However, compared to open pollination, artificial pollination experiments showed a significant increase in capsule setting, and D. chrysotoxum was cross-compatible and self-compatible, but there was pollinator limitation also. This study will provide important information for the preservation… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Monarchy Butterfly Optimization Algorithm (IMBO): Intrusion Detection Using Mapreduce Framework Based Optimized ANU-Net

    Kunda Suresh Babu, Yamarthi Narasimha Rao*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5887-5909, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.037486

    Abstract The demand for cybersecurity is rising recently due to the rapid improvement of network technologies. As a primary defense mechanism, an intrusion detection system (IDS) was anticipated to adapt and secure computing infrastructures from the constantly evolving, sophisticated threat landscape. Recently, various deep learning methods have been put forth; however, these methods struggle to recognize all forms of assaults, especially infrequent attacks, because of network traffic imbalances and a shortage of aberrant traffic samples for model training. This work introduces deep learning (DL) based Attention based Nested U-Net (ANU-Net) for intrusion detection to address these issues and enhance detection performance.… More >

  • Open Access


    Observation of Flowering Process of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)—Insight into the Starting of Pollination of Flower Hiding in Calyptras (Cap)

    Yue Wang1,#, Xiujie Li2,#, Yusen Wu2, Zhonghui Cai1, Bo Li2, Zhaosen Xie1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1859-1871, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027067

    Abstract It is generally agreed that many Vitis vinifera L. cultivars are self-fertile, where self-pollination often occurs before capfall in a process called cleistogamy. Therefore, it is difficult to identify the right time to remove stamens before self-pollination during the cross-breeding of grape. For this paper, we observed the process of grape flowering and measured the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of grape flowers of ‘Shine Muscat’ in order to identify the starting time of self-pollination before capfall and to provide useful information for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding. The results demonstrate that the anther is not cracked during the visible… More >

  • Open Access


    Chaotic Flower Pollination with Deep Learning Based COVID-19 Classification Model

    T. Gopalakrishnan1, Mohamed Yacin Sikkandar2, Raed Abdullah Alharbi3, P. Selvaraj4, Zahraa H. Kareem5, Ahmed Alkhayyat6,*, Ali Hashim Abbas7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 6195-6212, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033252

    Abstract The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of medical services across the globe, especially in underdeveloped nations. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak, a strong demand exists for developing novel computer-assisted diagnostic tools to execute rapid and cost-effective screenings in locations where many screenings cannot be executed using conventional methods. Medical imaging has become a crucial component in the disease diagnosis process, whereas X-rays and Computed Tomography (CT) scan imaging are employed in a deep network to diagnose the diseases. In general, four steps are followed in image-based diagnostics and disease classification processes by making use of… More >

  • Open Access


    Selective Harmonics Elimination Technique for Artificial Bee Colony Implementation

    T. DeepikaVinothini1,*, R. Karthigaivel2, J. BarsanaBanu3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2721-2740, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.028662

    Abstract In this research, an Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm based Selective Harmonics Elimination (SHE) technique is used as a pulse generator in a reduced switch fifteen level inverter that receives input from a PV system. Pulse width modulation based on Selective Harmonics Elimination is mostly used to suppress lower-order harmonics. A high gain DC-DC-SEPIC converter keeps the photovoltaic (PV) panel’s output voltage constant. The Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) filter removes far more Photovoltaic panel energy from the sunlight frame. To eliminate voltage harmonics, this unique inverter architecture employs a multi-carrier duty cycle, a high-frequency modulation approach. The proposed ABC harmonics… More >

  • Open Access


    Blockchain Assisted Intrusion Detection System Using Differential Flower Pollination Model

    Mohammed Altaf Ahmed1, Sara A Althubiti2, Dronamraju Nageswara Rao3, E. Laxmi Lydia4, Woong Cho5, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi6, Sung Won Kim7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 4695-4711, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.032083

    Abstract Cyberattacks are developing gradually sophisticated, requiring effective intrusion detection systems (IDSs) for monitoring computer resources and creating reports on anomalous or suspicious actions. With the popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the security of IoT networks is developing a vital problem. Because of the huge number and varied kinds of IoT devices, it can be challenging task for protecting the IoT framework utilizing a typical IDS. The typical IDSs have their restrictions once executed to IoT networks because of resource constraints and complexity. Therefore, this paper presents a new Blockchain Assisted Intrusion Detection System using Differential Flower Pollination with… More >

  • Open Access


    Flower Pollination Heuristics for Parameter Estimation of Electromagnetic Plane Waves

    Sadiq Akbar1, Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja2,*, Naveed Ishtiaq Chaudhary3, Fawad Zaman4, Hani Alquhayz5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2529-2543, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016097

    Abstract For the last few decades, the parameter estimation of electromagnetic plane waves i.e., far field sources, impinging on antenna array geometries has attracted a lot of researchers due to their use in radar, sonar and under water acoustic environments. In this work, nature inspired heuristics based on the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is designed for the estimation problem of amplitude and direction of arrival of far field sources impinging on uniform linear array (ULA). Using the approximation in mean squared error sense, a fitness function of the problem is developed and the strength of the FPA is utilized for optimization… More >

  • Open Access


    A Machine Learning Based Algorithm to Process Partial Shading Effects in PV Arrays

    Kamran Sadiq Awan1, Tahir Mahmood1, Mohammad Shorfuzzaman2, Rashid Ali3, Raja Majid Mehmood4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.1, pp. 29-43, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014824

    Abstract Solar energy is a widely used type of renewable energy. Photovoltaic arrays are used to harvest solar energy. The major goal, in harvesting the maximum possible power, is to operate the system at its maximum power point (MPP). If the irradiation conditions are uniform, the P-V curve of the PV array has only one peak that is called its MPP. But when the irradiation conditions are non-uniform, the P-V curve has multiple peaks. Each peak represents an MPP for a specific irradiation condition. The highest of all the peaks is called Global Maximum Power Point (GMPP). Under uniform irradiation conditions,… More >

  • Open Access


    Flower Pollination Heuristics for Nonlinear Active Noise Control Systems

    Wasim Ullah Khan1,*, Yigang He1, Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja2, Naveed Ishtiaq Chaudhary3, Zeshan Aslam Khan3, Syed Muslim Shah4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.67, No.1, pp. 815-834, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014674

    Abstract Abstract In this paper, a novel design of the flower pollination algorithm is presented for model identification problems in nonlinear active noise control systems. The recently introduced flower pollination based heuristics is implemented to minimize the mean squared error based merit/cost function representing the scenarios of active noise control system with linear/nonlinear and primary/secondary paths based on the sinusoidal signal, random and complex random signals as noise interferences. The flower pollination heuristics based active noise controllers are formulated through exploitation of nonlinear filtering with Volterra series. The comparative study on statistical observations in terms of accuracy, convergence and complexity measures… More >

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