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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stepwise Pyrolysis by LBCR Downstream to Enhance of Gasoline Fraction of Liquid Fuel from MMSW

    Indra Mamad Gandidi1,2,*, Edy Suryadi3, Efri Mardawati3, Dwi Rustam Kendarto3, Nugroho Agung Pambudi4,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1169-1178, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018821

    Abstract Pyrolysis is one of the thermal cracking methods to convert hydrocarbon to liquid fuel. The quantity and quality of the process are dependent on several condition including temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and the type of reactor. Meanwhile, a gasoline fraction was maximum product to be considered in the pyrolisis process. Therefore, this study aims to increase the gasoline fraction in liquid fuel using stepwise pyrolysis with a long bed catalytic reactor downstream (LBCR). The LBCR downstream was equipped with the top and bottom outlet and the fed source was mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Thermogravimetric and Synergy Analysis of the Co-Pyrolysis of Coconut Husk and Laminated Plastic Packaging for Biofuel Production

    Joselito Olalo*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.2, pp. 555-567, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.018864

    Abstract Unlike plastic, biomass can also be converted and produce high quality of biofuel. Co-pyrolysis of coconut husk (CH) and laminated plastic packaging (LPP) were done in this study. Synergy between these two feedstock was calculated by using thermogravimetric (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analysis. Different activation energies of the reactions in the co-pyrolysis of CH and LPP were evaluated using the Coats-Redfern method. Results showed an activation energy ranging from 8 to 37 kJ/mol in the different percentage composition of the co-pyrolysis. Also, thermal degradation happens in two-stages in the copyrolysis of CH and LPP, More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous and High-Performance Carbon Materials from Seaweed Biomass

    Kaihan Xie1, Yamin Hu1,*, Stephen Afonaa-Mensah2, Chuan Yuan1, Bin Cao1, Shuang Wang1,*, Qian Wang1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 541-560, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017911

    Abstract Use Enteromorpha clathrate as a carbon and nitrogen precursor could obtain the N-doped porous carbon materials by two-step pyrolysis. In this paper, the exogenous nitrogen (urea, melamine) and activating agents (KOH, ZnCl2) were employed for the production of higher-performance carbon materials from seaweed biomass. SEM, BET, FTIR, XRD, XPS, Raman and ultimate analyses were carried out to investigate the morpho-structural and elemental peculiarities of the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) , galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and cyclic charge-discharge tests were carried out to examine the electrochemical properties of the samples. The results showed that electrochemical performance of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study on Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous and High-Performance Carbon Materials from Seaweed Biomass

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Slow Pyrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for the Production of Char and the Potential of Its By-Product for Wood Protection

    Febrina Dellarose Boer1,2,3, Jérémy Valette1,2, Jean-Michel Commandré1,2, Mériem Fournier3,4, Marie-France Thévenon1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 97-117, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013147

    Abstract Sugarcane bagasse was pyrolyzed using a laboratory fixed bed reactor to produce char and its by-product (pyrolysis liquid). The pyrolysis experiments were carried out using different temperatures (400°C and 500°C), heating rate (1 °C/min and 10 °C/min), and holding time (30 min and 60 min). Char was characterized according to its thermal properties, while the pyrolysis liquid was tested for its anti-fungal and anti-termite activities. Pyrolysis temperature and heating rate had a significant influence on the char properties and the yield of char and pyrolysis liquid, where a high-quality char and high yield of pyrolysis… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Conversion and Utilization System of Municipal Solid Waste

    Qin Liu*, Ruliang Zhang

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.2, pp. 89-98, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010373

    Abstract With the development of urbanization in China, the problem of garbage disposal has become increasingly serious. Among the existing waste treatment technologies, pyrolysis is an emerging treatment technology, which has obvious advantages in terms of reduction and secondary pollution. It has good development prospects. This article first compares the advantages and disadvantages of various existing waste treatment technologies, and proposes an organization method that combines thermogravimetric analysis, kinetic analysis, tube furnace experiments, and domestic waste pyrolysis and low-calorie heat the decomposed gases burn together. Urban garbage is one of the main pollution sources of modern… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pyrolysis of Rice Husk in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: Evaluate the Characteristics of Fractional Bio-Oil and Particulate Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosol (CA)

    Ning Li1,2, Weiming Yi1,2, Zhihe Li1,2,*, Lihong Wang1,2, Yongjun Li1,2, Xueyuan Bai1,2, Mei Jiang1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 329-346, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.08618

    Abstract Bio-oil production via pyrolysis is one of promising technologies for renewable energy production from bio-wastes. However, the complicated biooil is still a challenge for high-valued application and during biomass pyrolysis, the emission of non-cleaned aerosol, the potential emission, namely carbonaceous aerosol (CA) increased the difficulty of the commercial promotion. In this study, Rice husk pyrolysis was performed in a semi-continuous fluidized bed reactor coupled with fractional condensers. The effects of pyrolysis and condensation temperature on the properties of bio-oil and emission of CA were investigated systemically. Results indicated that the in-situ separation of vapors was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochar-Induced Priming Effects in Young and Old Poplar Plantation Soils

    Weiwei Lu1,*, Yirui Zhang1, Yixian Yao1, Yuying Wu1, Han Y. H. Chen2, Hailin Zhang3, Jia Yu4, Caiqin Shen5, Qi Liu6, Honghua Ruan1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 13-26, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09125

    Abstract The priming effect (PE) induced by biochar provides a basis for evaluating its carbon (C) sequestration potential in soils. A 60 days’ laboratory incubation was conducted, which involved the amendment of biochar (1% of soil mass) produced from rice straw at 300ºC (B300) and 500ºC (B500) to young (Y) and old (O) poplar plantation soils, with the aim of studying the responses of biochar-induced PEs to poplar plantation ages. This incubation included six treatments: Y + CK (control), Y + B300, Y + B500, O + CK, O + B300, and O + B500. Carbon… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Semi-Interpenetrating Novolac-Epoxy Thermoset Polymer Networks Derived from Plant Biomass

    Mehul Barde1,2, Yusuf Celikbag3, Brian Via3, Sushil Adhikari4, Maria L. Auad1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.7, pp. 724-736, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00116

    Abstract Bio-based phenol-formaldehyde polymer (BioNovolac) was developed by reacting molar excess of bio-oil/phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Glycidyl 3,5-diglycidoxybenzoate (GDGB), was prepared by direct glycidylation of α-resorcylic acid (RA), a naturally occurring phenolic monomer. GDGB was crosslinked in the presence of BioNovolac by anionic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The glass transition temperature and moduli of bio-based crosslinked systems were observed to increase with increasing GDGB content. Active chain density and mass retention measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Soxhlet extraction, respectively, indicated a high crosslink More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Influence of Annealing in Nitrogen Atmosphere on the Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of Spray-Deposited ZnO Thin Films

    Shadia J Ikhmayies1, Naseem M. Abu El-Haija2, Riyad N. Ahmad-Bitar3

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 219-232, 2010, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2010.006.219

    Abstract Large area and highly uniform polycrystalline ZnO thin films have been produced by a spray pyrolysis (SP) technique resorting to a customized system (spraying) on glass substrates at temperature Ts= 450℃. This study deals with the related investigation about the influence of heat treatment (in nitrogen atmosphere) on the resulting properties (electrical, optical and structural) of such films. Properties are analyzed by means of I-V plots, transmittance curves, X-Ray diffractograms (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Results show that the resistivity of the films decreases from about 200W.cm for the as-deposited films to about… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization of Undoped Spray-Deposited ZnO Thin Films of Photovoltaic Applications

    ShadiaJ. Ikhmayies1, Naseem M. Abu El-Haija1, Riyad N. Ahmad-Bitar1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 165-178, 2010, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2010.006.165

    Abstract Undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates at a substrate temperature Ts= 450 C by the spray pyrolysis (SP) technique. The films were characterized by analyzing their I-V curves, transmittance, X-ray diffractograms (XRD) and their scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The I-V plots are all linear and the resistivity was found to be about 200W.cm. The transmittance in the visible and near infrared regions is as high as 85% which is suitable for solar cell applications. The absorption coefficient which is deduced from the transmittance measurements is continuously increasing with the photon's… More >

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