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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Preparation Process Optimization of Plywood Based on a Full Biomass Tannin-Sucrose Wood Adhesive

    Wen Gu#, Xinyue Ding#, Min Tang*, Feiyan Gong*, Shuangshuang Yuan, Jintao Duan

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.8, pp. 3245-3259, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027461

    Abstract Biomass adhesive is conducive to decreasing the dependence of the wood adhesive industry on synthetic resin based on fossil resources and improving the market competitiveness of adhesives. It is also a critical breakthrough to realize the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality in the wood industry. In this study, a full biomass wood adhesive composed of tannin and sucrose was developed and applied successfully to the preparation of plywood. The preparation technique of plywood was optimized, and the chemical structure, curing performance, crystallization property and thermal performance of the adhesive were investigated. Results showed that: (1) hot-pressing temperature played… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

    Qianyu Zhang1,2, Antonio Pizzi3, Hong Lei1,2,*, Xuedong Xi1,2,*, Ming Cao1,2, Long Cao1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1439-1450, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023535

    Abstract Soy protein adhesives are currently a hot research topic in the wood panels industry for the abundant raw material reserves, reasonable price and outstanding environmental features. But their poor water resistance, low bonding strength and intolerance to mold are major drawbacks, so that proper modification before use is essential. Glutaraldehyde is one of the more apt cross-linking agents for soybean protein adhesives, which can effectively improve the bonding strength and water resistance of the adhesive. Equally, glutaraldehyde is also an efficient and broad-spectrum fungicide that can significantly improve the anti-fungal properties of a soy protein adhesive. In the work presented… More > Graphic Abstract

    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    MUF Resins Improved by Citric Acid as Adhesives for Wood Veneer Panels

    Claudio Del Menezzi1,2,3, Antonio Pizzi2,*, Siham Amirou2, Xuedong Xi4,5

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 539-553, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024971

    Abstract

    This article presents the first applied results of using citric acid in combinations with a melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin for bonding wood veneers. The chemical reactions involved are shown based on a MALDI ToF analysis of the reaction of the MUF resin with citric acid. The preliminary results of the physical and mechanical properties of the LVL prepared are also presented. Veneers from Populus sp were used to manufacture 5-layer laminated veneer lumber (LVL) of small dimensions. Five combinations of the amount of citric acid, MUF spread rate and pressing parameters were tested. LVL bonded with 20% of citric acid +… More > Graphic Abstract

    MUF Resins Improved by Citric Acid as Adhesives for Wood Veneer Panels

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Valorization of Tunisian Pomegranate Peel Tannins in Green Adhesives Formulation

    Houda Saad1,2,*, Antonio Pizzi3,4, Bertrand Charrier2, Naceur Ayed1, Karsten Rode5, Fatima Charrier - El Bouhtoury2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 34-43, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634130

    Abstract The possible use of Tunisian pomegranate tannins in wood adhesive formulation was studied for the fi rst time. Colorimetric tests, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to examine pomegranate tannins. Analysis showed that pomegranate peels are rich in hydrolyzable tannins. The Stiasny number tests showed the low reactivity of pomegranate tannin extract to formaldehyde and thus the diffi culty of using it in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and strength analysis of pomegranate tannin/hexamine-based resin showed weak bonding properties. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bond Strength of Biodegradable Gelatin-Based Wood Adhesives

    D.N. Dorr, S.D. Frazier, K.M. Hess, L.S. Traeger, W.V. Srubar III*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 195-204, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634108

    Abstract A study of the potential for gelatin-based derivatives to serve as biorenewable, biodegradable adhesives for wood and engineered wood products is presented in this article. The effect of gelatin-to-water weight percent on the mechanical, specifically ultimate breaking (bond) strength, and thermal properties was investigated using tensile testing and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The breaking strengths of the gelatin-based adhesives were characterized and compared to four commercially available wood adhesives. The effect of 1–5% tannin addition on the mechanical, thermal, and moisture absorption behavior of the gelatin-based adhesives was also investigated. Results show that the gelatin-based materials demonstrate 1) appropriate thermal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Lignocellulosic Micro and Nanofibrillated Cellulose Produced by Steam Explosion for Wood Adhesive Formulations

    Saad Nader1,2, Felipe Guzman3, Raphael Becar1, César Segovia4, Cecilia Fuentealba3, Miguel Peirera3, Evelyne Mauret2, Nicolas Brosse1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 263-271, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017923

    Abstract The reinforcing impact of Lignocellulosic micro and nanofibrillated cellulose (L-MNFCs) obtained from Eucalyptus Globulus bark in Urea-Formaldehyde UF adhesive was tested. L-MNFCs were prepared by an environmentally friendly, low-cost process using a combination process involving steam explosion followed by refining and ultra-fine grinding. Obtained L-MNFCs showed a web-like morphology with some aggregates and lignin nanodroplets. They present a mixture of residual fibers and fine elements with a width varying between 5 nm to 20 μm, respectively. The effects of the addition of low amounts of L-MNFCs (1% wt.) on the properties of three different adhesives (Urea-Formaldehyde UF, Phenol-Formaldehyde PF, and Tannin-Hexamine TH)… More > Graphic Abstract

    Lignocellulosic Micro and Nanofibrillated Cellulose Produced by Steam Explosion for Wood Adhesive Formulations

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Soy Protein Isolate Non-Isocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) Wood Adhesives

    Xinyi Chen1,2, Antonio Pizzi1,*, Xuedong Xi1,2, Xiaojian Zhou2, Emmanuel Fredon1, Christine Gerardin3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1045-1057, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015066

    Abstract Soy-protein isolate (SPI) was used to prepare non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) thermosetting adhesives for wood panels by reacting it with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and hexamethylene diamine. Both linear as well as branched oligomers were obtained and identified, indicating how such oligomer structures could further cross-link to form a hardened network. Unusual structures were observed, namely carbamic acid-derived urethane linkages coupled with lactam structures. The curing of the adhesive was followed by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It appeared to follow a two stages process: First, at a lower temperature (maximum 130°C), the growth of linear oligomers occurred, finally forming a physically entangled network.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    No-Aldehydes Glucose/Sucrose-Triacetin-Diamine Wood Adhesives for Particleboard

    Xuedong Xi, Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.7, pp. 715-725, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.010882

    Abstract A three reagents adhesive system for wood particleboards not containing any aldehyde was developed by the reaction of glucose or sucrose with triacetin (glycerin triacetate) and with hexamethylene diamine. The system was found to be based on the mix of three reactions, namely the reaction of (i) glucose with triacetin, (ii) of the diamine with triacetin, and (iii) of glucose with the diamine. The chemical species formed were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. Wood particleboard panels were prepared with this adhesive system and gave good internal bond (IB) strength results suitable for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hydroxymethylfurfural Hardening of Pine Tannin Wood Adhesives

    F.-J. Santiago-Medina1, A. Pizzi1,2,*, S. Abdalla2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 435-447, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634166

    Abstract An adhesive based on the reaction of a very fast reacting procyanidin-type condensed tannin, namely purified pine bark tannin, with a biosourced nontoxic and nonvolatile aldehyde derived from the pulp and paper industry, namely hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was shown to almost satisfy the relevant standards for bonding wood particleboard. The conditions of pH used are determinant for the result. The oligomers obtained by the reaction and their distribution have been determined by matrix-assisted laser ionization desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Of the two reactive groups of hydroxymethylfurfural capable of reacting, the furanic aldehyde one and the furanic hydroxymethyl alcohol group, only… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Natural Additive for Reducing Formaldehyde Emissions in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

    Flávio Pereira1, João Pereira2, Nádia Paiva3, João Ferra3, Jorge Manuel Martins1,4, Fernão D. Magalhães1, and Luísa Carvalho1,4*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 41-46, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634128

    Abstract This work studies the use of soy protein as a natural formaldehyde scavenger in wood particleboard production. The protein is incorporated in two forms: a) as a powder, during the blending process of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde binder resin, and b) as an aqueous solution, added at different times during resin synthesis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the signifi cance level of two effects (amount of added soy and time of addition) on internal bond strength, thickness swelling, and formaldehyde content of the resulting panels. The results showed that soy protein can contribute to decrease the formaldehyde… More >

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