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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochar Effectively Reduces Ammonia Volatilization From Nitrogen-Applied Soils in Tea and Bamboo Plantations

    Lei Chu, H. M. K. Darshika Hennayake, Haijun Sun*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 261-267, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.07791

    Abstract Intensive practices in forest soils result in dramatic nitrogen (N) losses, particularly ammonia (NH3) volatilization, to adjacent environmental areas. A soil column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar on NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soils. The results showed that biochar amendment effectively reduced NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soil by 79.2% and 75.5%, respectively. The soil pH values increased by 0.53-0.61 units after biochar application. The NH4+-N and total N of both soils were 13.8-29.7% and 34.0-41.9% higher under the biochar treatments than under the control treatment, respectively. In addition,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Responses of Barley Seedlings to Aluminum Stress

    Xiaoqin Zhang, Tao Tong, Bin Tian, Yunxia Fang, Jiangjie Pan, Junjun Zheng and Dawei Xue*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 253-260, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.06143

    Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Aluminum (Al) sensitive cereal species. In this study, the physiological, biochemical, and molecular response of barley seedlings to Al treatment was examined to gain insight into Al response and tolerance mechanisms. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity were inhibited to different degrees following Al exposure. The MDA content also significantly increased with increasing Al concentrations. SRAP results indicated significant differences between Al treatments and controls in terms of SRAP profile, and the genomic template stability (GTS) decreased with increasing Al concentration and duration. These… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Photosynthetic Behaviour and Mineral Nutrition of Tamarix gallica Cultivated Under Aluminum and NaCl Combined Stress

    Dhouha Belhaj Sghaier1, Insaf Bankaji1, Sylvia Pedro2, Isabel Caçador2, Noomene Sleimi1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 239-252, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.06887

    Abstract The lack of knowledge of plant tolerance and differential response to aluminum (Al) encouraged many researchers, in the last decade, to elucidate Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. The current study reported the impact of Al, a toxic element with negative effects on plant growth and development, in halophytic plant Tamarix gallica. Plants were subjected to different Al concentrations (0, 200, 500 and 800 μM) with or without NaCl (200 mM) supplementation. Growth, photosynthesis and mineral content were assessed. Al stress had a significant decrease on shoots’ biomass production between 19 to 41%, and a little variation on chlorophyll content and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Trace Elements in the Soil-Plant Systems of Copper Mine Areas-A Case Study From Murgul Copper Mine From the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Munir Ozturk1,*, Volkan Altay2, Mahir Kucuk3, Ibrahim Ertuğrul Yalçın4

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 223-238, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.07446

    Abstract This study presents a case study on the heavy metal analysis of soil and plant samples around the Murgul copper mine, one of the first and most important mining areas in Turkey. An attempt has been made to investigate the status of trace elements like Al3+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cd2+ in soils and plants. The sampling localities were taken from 500 m, 600 m, and 1000 m altitudes around the factory and at 1400 m in the forest zone. The aboveground parts and foliage ash of Silene compacta, Tussilago farfara, Smilax excelsa, Rhododendron ponticum, R. luteum,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Targeting Glycinebetaine for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants: Physiological Mechanism, Molecular Interaction and Signaling

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman1,*, Aditya Banerjee2, M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan3,4, Aryadeep Roychoudhury2,*, Jubayer Al Mahmud5 and Masayuki Fujita3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 185-221, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.07559

    Abstract In the era of climate change, abiotic stresses (e.g., salinity, drought, extreme temperature, flooding, metal/metalloid(s), UV radiation, ozone, etc.) are considered as one of the most complex environmental constraints that restricts crop production worldwide. Introduction of stress-tolerant crop cultivars is the most auspicious way of surviving this constraint, and to produce these types of tolerant crops. Several bioengineering mechanisms involved in stress signaling are being adopted in this regard. One example of this kind of manipulation is the osmotic adjustment. The quarternary ammonium compound glycinebetaine (GB), also originally referred to as betaine is a methylated glycine derivative. Among the betaines,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphology and Genetic Studies of Cymodocea Seagrass Genus in Tunisian Coasts

    Ramzi Bchir1,2,*, Aslam Sami Djellouli1, Nadia Zitouna3, Didier Aurelle4, Gerard Pergent2, Christine Pergent-Martini2 and Habib Langar1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.2, pp. 171-184, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.05261

    Abstract Specimens of Cymodocea (Viridiplantae, Magnoliophyta) collected on the Tunisian coasts showed a particular morphological and anatomical difference with the classical descriptions of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asch. the only species of this genus reported in the Mediterranean Sea. In order to precise the taxonomic identity of the new specimens we aimed in this work (i) to verify the identity of the new forms, (ii) to evaluate the genetic diversity of the population, (iii) to test the validity of the existing identification keys of the Tunisian Cymodocea populations. Four stations located in two regions of the Tunisian coasts were sampled. Leaf morphological… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Eugenia winzerlingii Extracts on Bemisia tabaci and Evaluation of its Nursery Propagation

    A. Cruz-Estrada1,2, E. Ruiz-Sánchez2, I.L. Medina Baizabal1, E. Balam-Uc1 and M. Gamboa-Angulo1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.2, pp. 161-170, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.05809

    Abstract The development of plant-derived products to control Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an urgent need for production of horticultural crops. Plant extracts and essential oils of several species of the genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae) have shown insecticidal activity. In southern Mexico, leaf extracts from Eugenia winzerlingii showed nematicidal effect but its insecticidal properties have not been explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous and organic extracts from E. winzerlingii leaves on B. tabaci egg, nymph and adult stages, and else to explore its nursery propagation. Then, extracts of this species were obtained… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes in Anatomical Features and Protein Pattern of Sunflower Partially Resistant and Susceptible Lines During Infection By Virulence Factors of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum

    Maryam Monazzah1, Sattar Tahmasebi Enferadi1,*, Zohre Rabiei1 and Alessandro Mattiello2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.2, pp. 149-159, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.05053

    Abstract Helianthus annuus L. as an oil seed crop is widely grown throughout the world. One of the most destructive diseases of sunflower is stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Oxalic acid is the major virulence factor of this necrotrophic pathogen. It is important to further investigate plant responses to this non-specific toxin. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the patterns of total soluble proteins and xylem morphology of partially resistant and susceptible sunflower lines after treatment with Sclerotinia culture filtrate. The basal stems of both lines were treated with 40 mM oxalic acid (pH 3.7) of fungus culture filtrate… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Total Phenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Annona muricata and Annona purpurea Callus Culture

    M. Y. Ovando-Domínguez1, M. C. Luján-Hidalgo1, D. González-Mendoza2, A. A. Vargas-Díaz3, N. Ruiz-Lau1,4, F. A. Gutiérrez-Miceli1, C. A. Lecona-Guzmán1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.2, pp. 139-147, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.06546

    Abstract Callus cultures of Annona muricata and Annona purpurea were induced in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) utilized hypocotyls with explant. The highest percentage of callus formation was the treatment supplemented with 3 mg L-1 NAA for A. muricata (100%) while for A. purpurea in lower percentage (75%). BA stimulated the formation of shoots in all the evaluated concentrations, being the concentration of 2 mg L-1 the one that induced the greater formation of shoots for A. muricata (23 shoots/explant) and A. purpurea (28 shoots/explant). The content… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Torin 1, TOR Inhibitor Enhances Cellular Proliferation in NT-1 Tobacco Suspension Cell Cultures

    Grisel Fierros-Romero1,*, M. Elena Mellado-Rojas2, Reynaldo C. Pless3, Juan Ignacio Valiente-Banuet1, Ashutosh Sharma1 and Elda M. Beltrán-Peña2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.2, pp. 131-137, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.05036

    Abstract Torin 1 is an ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor which inhibits the signaling of TOR and S6K kinase in mammals and plants. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of Torin 1 in a relatively simple and homogeneous plant system such as the NT-1 tobacco suspension cell cultures. Cultures of NT-1 cells were tested with 5, 50, 150 and 250 nM of Torin 1. During kinetics growth of NT-1 tobacco suspension cell cultures, 150 and 250 nM Torin 1 inhibits the early growth and later enhanced the cellular proliferation during exponential growth by means of an increased expression of… More >

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