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  • Open Access


    Ritonavir Interacts With Belinostat to Cause Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Histone Acetylation in Renal Cancer Cells

    Makoto Isono, Akinori Sato, Kazuki Okubo, Takako Asano, Tomohiko Asano

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 327-335, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347635

    Abstract The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor belinostat increases the amount of unfolded proteins in cells by promoting the acetylation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), thereby disrupting its chaperone function. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir, on the other hand, not only increases unfolded proteins by suppressing HSP90 but also acts as a proteasome inhibitor. We thought that belinostat and ritonavir together would induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and kill renal cancer cells effectively. The combination of belinostat and ritonavir induced drastic apoptosis and inhibited the growth of renal cancer cells synergistically. Mechanistically, the combination More >

  • Open Access


    Knockdown of REV7 Inhibits Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    Liu Feng*†, Wang Wei*, Zhang Heng, Han Yantao, Wang Chunbo

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 315-325, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347590

    Abstract REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA damage tolerance, cell cycle regulation, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. Although its expression is reportedly associated with poor prognosis in several kinds of human cancers, the significance of REV7 expression in breast malignancies is unclear. In this study, REV7 was found to be increased in breast cancer. We found that knockdown of REV7 inhibited the migration, invasion, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of REV7 promoted the migration, invasion, and EMT of breast cancer cells. As shown by Western blot, More >

  • Open Access


    TIPE2 Overexpression Suppresses the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Prostate Cancer Cells by Inhibiting PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Qiang Lu, Zhe Liu, Zhuo Li, Jia Chen, Zhi Liao, Wan-rui Wu, Yuan-wei Li

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 305-313, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347437

    Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)-induced protein 8-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2, TIPE2) is involved in the invasion and metastasis of human tumors. However, the functional role of TIPE2 in prostate cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of TIPE2 in prostate cancer and cancer progression including the molecular mechanism that drives TIPE2-mediated oncogenesis. Our results showed that TIPE2 was lowly expressed in human prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. In addition, restored TIPE2 obviously inhibits proliferation in prostate cancer cells. TIPE2 overexpression also suppresses the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and migration/invasion in prostate cancer More >

  • Open Access


    Anexelekto (AXL) Increases Resistance to EGFR-TKI and Activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Yaqiong Tian*1, Zengli Zhang†1, Liyun Miao*, Zhimin Yang, Jie Yang*, Yinhua Wang§, Danwen Qian, Hourong Cai*, Yongsheng Wang*

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 295-303, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14648701447814

    Abstract Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have revolutionized nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, resistance remains a major obstacle. Anexelekto (AXL) is a member of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and shares the same downstream signaling pathways with EGFR, such as PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. AXL overexpression in resistant tumors has been implicated in many previous studies in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we further examined whether expression of AXL and its downstream targets increased in gefitinib-resistant PC9 cells (PC9GR). In addition, we hypothesize that knocking down AXL in PC9GR and… More >

  • Open Access


    Knockdown of Rap1b Enhances Apoptosis and Autophagy in Gastric Cancer Cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    Yazhou Li*†, Yang Liu, Feiyu Shi, Liang Cheng, Junjun She

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 287-293, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14648701447779

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality around the world. However, the regulatory mechanisms of GC tumorigenesis and cancer cell motility are completely unknown. We investigated the role of a RAS-related protein (Rap1b) in the progression of GC. Our results showed that the expression of Rap1b is aberrantly upregulated in GC tissue samples and human GC cell lines, and the high expression of Rap1b indicated a positive correlation with poor prognosis in patients with GC. Inhibition of endogenous Rap1b dramatically reduced the cell cycle progression… More >

  • Open Access


    Knockdown of PARP-1 Inhibits Proliferation and ERK Signals, Increasing Drug Sensitivity in Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells

    Sheng Li, Zhengli Cui, Xianfeng Meng

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 279-286, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347554

    Abstract Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is reported to be involved in DNA repair and is now recognized as a key regulator in carcinogenesis. However, the potential role and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of PARP-1 on osteosarcoma (OS) cells have not been elucidated. In this study, the results showed that knockdown of PARP-1 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, increased cell apoptosis, and G0/G1 phase arrest in U2OS cells. In addition, increased expression of active caspase 3 and Bax, but reduced Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) were observed in PARP-1 knockdown More >

  • Open Access


    Knockdown of CUL4B Suppresses the Proliferation and Invasion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Xuguang Wang*, Zhe Chen

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 271-277, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347473

    Abstract Cullin 4B (CUL4B), a scaffold protein that assembles CRL4B ubiquitin ligase complexes, was found to be overexpressed in many types of tumors. However, the expression pattern and role of CUL4B in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of CUL4B in NSCLC, and the underlying mechanism was also explored. Our results showed that CUL4B was highly expressed in NSCLC cell lines. Silencing CUL4B obviously inhibited proliferation and migration/invasion of NSCLC cells, and it also suppressed the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) progress in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, knockdown More >

  • Open Access


    Suppression of Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 17 (USP17) Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Invasion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Shengchao Zhang, Jun Yuan, Ruheng Zheng

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 263-269, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347392

    Abstract Recently, deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are emerging as new regulators in cancer progression. However, understanding of the involvement of DUBs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is just beginning. In this study, we investigated the expression and biological function of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 17 (USP17) in NSCLC progression in vitro and in vivo. We found that the expression of USP17 was higher than in a normal control. We further efficiently depleted USP17 expression in two different NSCLC cells, A549 and H1299. The anchorage-independent growth ability of these cells, estimated by soft agar colony formation assay, was significantly More >

  • Open Access


    TIPE2 Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Activation and EMT in Glioma Cells

    Zhi-jun Liu*1, Hong-lin Liu*1, Hai-cun Zhou, Gui-cong Wang*

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 255-261, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14666990347356

    Abstract Hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could facilitate tumor progression. TIPE2, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced protein 8-like 2 (also known as TNFAIP8L2), is a member of the TNF-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8, TIPE) family and has been involved in the development and progression of several tumors. However, the effects of TIPE2 on the EMT process in glioma cells and the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not been previously reported. In our study, we assessed the roles of TIPE2 in the EMT process in glioma cells in response to hypoxia. Our results indicated that TIPE2 expression was More >

  • Open Access


    Novel BRCA2-Interacting Protein, LIMD1, Is Essential for the Centrosome Localization of BRCA2 in Esophageal Cancer Cell

    Xiaobin Hou*1, Tinghui Li†1, Zhipeng Ren*, Yang Liu*

    Oncology Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 247-253, 2016, DOI:10.3727/096504016X14652175055765

    Abstract Mutation of breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) has been identified as a vital risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC). To date, several proteins have been reported as BRCA2-interacting proteins and are associated with multiple biological processes. This study's aim was to identify a novel interactive protein of BRCA2 and to explore its functional roles in EC. A yeast two-hybrid screening was performed to identify a novel BRCA2-interacting protein. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down analysis was performed to find out how the binding domain of BRCA2 interacts with LIM domains containing 1 (LIMD1). The interaction between LIMD1… More >

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