Vol.45, No.4, 2021, pp.863-884, doi:10.32604/biocell.2021.013993
OPEN ACCESS
REVIEW
Mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to escape apoptosis–A review
  • SAYEQUA DANDOTI*
Department of Basic Sciences, Deanship of Preparatory Year & Supporting Studies, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 34212, Saudi Arabia
* Address correspondence to: Sayequa Dandoti,
Received 28 August 2020; Accepted 03 November 2020; Issue published 22 April 2021
Abstract
Inactivation of apoptosis is the prime phenomenon in cancer development and cancer treatments. Mutations in the apoptotic pathway not only exert resistance to apoptosis and provide a survival advantage to cancer cells but also confer resistance to cancer therapies. Escaping apoptosis is the “hallmark” of cancer cells. Cancer cells can withstand many apoptotic stimuli, such as DNA damage, unfavorable environments, and cytotoxic therapies. Substantial research has been carried out and is in good progress on the various mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to evade apoptosis. This article reviews the apoptosis escape mechanisms by cancer cells, viz. apoptotic gene alterations (in few essential and accessory apoptotic genes), post-translational modifications (phosphorylation and ubiquitination of apoptotic proteins), metabolic alterations, mitochondrial alterations, immunity escape, epigenetics, cancer cell dormancy, cancer clonal theory, and reversibility of apoptosis. The review reveals that there is a wide scope for further research to address the various challenges in realizing successful cancer therapies that involve reversing the apoptotic resistance and/or inducing apoptosis in tumor cells.
Keywords
Apoptosis, Caspase, Apoptotic Genes, APAF-1, Death receptor, Cancer metabolism, Oncogene, miRNA
Cite This Article
DANDOTI, S. (2021). Mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to escape apoptosis–A review. BIOCELL, 45(4), 863–884.
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