Open Access iconOpen Access



A Bio-Inspired Routing Optimization in UAV-enabled Internet of Everything

Masood Ahmad1, Fasee Ullah2,*, Ishtiaq Wahid1, Atif Khan3, M. Irfan Uddin4, Abdullah Alharbi5, Wael Alosaimi5

1 Department of Computer Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan
2 Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan
3 Department of Computer Science, Islamia College Peshawar, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan
4 Institute of Computing, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, 26000, Pakistan
5 Department of Information Technology, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Fasee Ullah. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning-based Intelligent Systems: Theories, Algorithms, and Applications)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 67(1), 321-336.


Internet of Everything (IoE) indicates a fantastic vision of the future, where everything is connected to the internet, providing intelligent services and facilitating decision making. IoE is the collection of static and moving objects able to coordinate and communicate with each other. The moving objects may consist of ground segments and flying segments. The speed of flying segment e.g., Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs) may high as compared to ground segment objects. The topology changes occur very frequently due to high speed nature of objects in UAV-enabled IoE (Ue-IoE). The routing maintenance overhead may increase when scaling the Ue-IoE (number of objects increases). A single change in topology can force all the objects of the Ue-IoE to update their routing tables. Similarly, the frequent updating in routing table entries will result more energy dissipation and the lifetime of the Ue-IoE may decrease. The objects consume more energy on routing computations. To prevent the frequent updation of routing tables associated with each object, the computation of routes from source to destination may be limited to optimum number of objects in the Ue-IoE. In this article, we propose a routing scheme in which the responsibility of route computation (from neighbor objects to destination) is assigned to some IoE-objects in the Ue-IoE. The route computation objects (RCO) are selected on the basis of certain parameters like remaining energy and mobility. The RCO send the routing information of destination objects to their neighbors once they want to communicate with other objects. The proposed protocol is simulated and the results show that it outperform state-of-the-art protocols in terms of average energy consumption, messages overhead, throughput, delay etc.


Cite This Article

M. Ahmad, F. Ullah, I. Wahid, A. Khan, M. Irfan Uddin et al., "A bio-inspired routing optimization in uav-enabled internet of everything," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 67, no.1, pp. 321–336, 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 2526


  • 1437


  • 0


Share Link