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Robust Magnification Independent Colon Biopsy Grading System over Multiple Data Sources

Tina Babu1, Deepa Gupta1, Tripty Singh1,*, Shahin Hameed2, Mohammed Zakariah3, Yousef Ajami Alotaibi4

1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru, India
2 Department of Pathology, MVR Cancer Center and Research Institute, Poolacode, Kerala, India
3 College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
4 Computer Engineering Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Tripty Singh. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI, IoT, Blockchain Assisted Intelligent Solutions to Medical and Healthcare Systems)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 69(1), 99-128.


Automated grading of colon biopsy images across all magnifications is challenging because of tailored segmentation and dependent features on each magnification. This work presents a novel approach of robust magnification-independent colon cancer grading framework to distinguish colon biopsy images into four classes: normal, well, moderate, and poor. The contribution of this research is to develop a magnification invariant hybrid feature set comprising cartoon feature, Gabor wavelet, wavelet moments, HSV histogram, color auto-correlogram, color moments, and morphological features that can be used to characterize different grades. Besides, the classifier is modeled as a multiclass structure with six binary class Bayesian optimized random forest (BO-RF) classifiers. This study uses four datasets (two collected from Indian hospitals—Ishita Pathology Center (IPC) of 4X, 10X, and 40X and Aster Medcity (AMC) of 10X, 20X, and 40X—two benchmark datasets—gland segmentation (GlaS) of 20X and IMEDIATREAT of 10X) comprising multiple microscope magnifications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the other methods used for colon cancer grading in terms of accuracy (97.25%-IPC, 94.40%-AMC, 97.58%-GlaS, 99.16%-Imediatreat), sensitivity (0.9725-IPC, 0.9440-AMC, 0.9807-GlaS, 0.9923-Imediatreat), specificity (0.9908-IPC, 0.9813-AMC, 0.9907-GlaS, 0.9971-Imediatreat) and F-score (0.9725-IPC, 0.9441-AMC, 0.9780-GlaS, 0.9923-Imediatreat). The generalizability of the model to any magnified input image is validated by training in one dataset and testing in another dataset, highlighting strong concordance in multiclass classification and evidencing its effective use in the first level of automatic biopsy grading and second opinion.


Cite This Article

T. Babu, D. Gupta, T. Singh, S. Hameed, M. Zakariah et al., "Robust magnification independent colon biopsy grading system over multiple data sources," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 69, no.1, pp. 99–128, 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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