Home / Journals / CMC / Vol.69, No.1, 2021
Table of Content
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Real-Time Multimodal Biometric Authentication of Human Using Face Feature Analysis

    Rohit Srivastava1, Ravi Tomar1, Ashutosh Sharma2, Gaurav Dhiman3, Naveen Chilamkurti4, Byung-Gyu Kim5,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1-19, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015466
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Management of Security, Privacy and Trust of Multimedia Data in Mobile devices communication)
    Abstract As multimedia data sharing increases, data security in mobile devices and its mechanism can be seen as critical. Biometrics combines the physiological and behavioral qualities of an individual to validate their character in real-time. Humans incorporate physiological attributes like a fingerprint, face, iris, palm print, finger knuckle print, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), and behavioral qualities like walk, voice, mark, or keystroke. The main goal of this paper is to design a robust framework for automatic face recognition. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-up Robust Features (SURF) are employed for face recognition. Also, we propose a modified Gabor Wavelet Transform for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Supervised Machine Learning-Based Prediction of COVID-19

    Atta-ur-Rahman1, Kiran Sultan3, Iftikhar Naseer4, Rizwan Majeed5, Dhiaa Musleh1, Mohammed Abdul Salam Gollapalli2, Sghaier Chabani2, Nehad Ibrahim1, Shahan Yamin Siddiqui6,7, Muhammad Adnan Khan8,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 21-34, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.013453
    Abstract COVID-19 turned out to be an infectious and life-threatening viral disease, and its swift and overwhelming spread has become one of the greatest challenges for the world. As yet, no satisfactory vaccine or medication has been developed that could guarantee its mitigation, though several efforts and trials are underway. Countries around the globe are striving to overcome the COVID-19 spread and while they are finding out ways for early detection and timely treatment. In this regard, healthcare experts, researchers and scientists have delved into the investigation of existing as well as new technologies. The situation demands development of a clinical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of an Efficient Cooperative Spectrum for Intra-Hospital Cognitive Radio Network

    Abhinav Adarsh1, Basant Kumar1, Manoj Gupta2, Arun Kumar2, Aman Singh3,*, Mehedi Masud4, Fahad A. Alraddady5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 35-49, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017647
    Abstract This paper presents a new low delay centralized cooperative spectrum sensing method based on dynamic voting rule using multiple threshold level, for indoor hospital environment, where fading and direct path loss both are together responsible for variation in signal strength. In the proposed algorithm, weights of Cognitive Radios (CRs) in terms of assigned vote-count are estimated based on the sensed energy values with respect to multiple fixed threshold levels, so that the direct path loss can be dealt without further increasing the error, which occurs due to fading. For indoor hospital like environment, Rician fading model is more appropriate. Therefore,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sentiment Analysis of Short Texts Based on Parallel DenseNet

    Luqi Yan1, Jin Han1,*, Yishi Yue2, Liu Zhang2, Yannan Qian3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 51-65, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016920
    Abstract Text sentiment analysis is a common problem in the field of natural language processing that is often resolved by using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, most of these CNN models focus only on learning local features while ignoring global features. In this paper, based on traditional densely connected convolutional networks (DenseNet), a parallel DenseNet is proposed to realize sentiment analysis of short texts. First, this paper proposes two novel feature extraction blocks that are based on DenseNet and a multi-scale convolutional neural network. Second, this paper solves the problem of ignoring global features in traditional CNN models by combining the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Guided Intra-Patch Smoothing Graph Filtering for Single-Image Denoising

    Yibin Tang1, Ying Chen2, Aimin Jiang1, Jian Li1, Yan Zhou1,*, Hon Keung Kwan3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 67-80, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017300
    Abstract Graph filtering is an important part of graph signal processing and a useful tool for image denoising. Existing graph filtering methods, such as adaptive weighted graph filtering (AWGF), focus on coefficient shrinkage strategies in a graph-frequency domain. However, they seldom consider the image attributes in their graph-filtering procedure. Consequently, the denoising performance of graph filtering is barely comparable with that of other state-of-the-art denoising methods. To fully exploit the image attributes, we propose a guided intra-patch smoothing AWGF (AWGF-GPS) method for single-image denoising. Unlike AWGF, which employs graph topology on patches, AWGF-GPS learns the topology of superpixels by introducing the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Adaptive Cell Zooming Strategy Toward Next-Generation Cellular Networks with Joint Transmission

    Abu Jahid1, Mohammed H. Alsharif2, Raju Kannadasan3, Mahmoud A. Albreem4, Peerapong Uthansakul5,*, Jamel Nebhen6, Ayman A. Aly7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 81-98, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017711
    Abstract The Internet subscribers are expected to increase up to 69.7% (6 billion) from 45.3% and 25 billion Internet-of-things connections by 2025. Thus, the ubiquitous availability of data-hungry smart multimedia devices urges research attention to reduce the energy consumption in the fifth-generation cloud radio access network to meet the future traffic demand of high data rates. We propose a new cell zooming paradigm based on joint transmission (JT) coordinated multipoint to optimize user connection by controlling the cell coverage in the downlink communications with a hybrid power supply. The endeavoring cell zooming technique adjusts the coverage area in a given cluster… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Magnification Independent Colon Biopsy Grading System over Multiple Data Sources

    Tina Babu1, Deepa Gupta1, Tripty Singh1,*, Shahin Hameed2, Mohammed Zakariah3, Yousef Ajami Alotaibi4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 99-128, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016341
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI, IoT, Blockchain Assisted Intelligent Solutions to Medical and Healthcare Systems)
    Abstract Automated grading of colon biopsy images across all magnifications is challenging because of tailored segmentation and dependent features on each magnification. This work presents a novel approach of robust magnification-independent colon cancer grading framework to distinguish colon biopsy images into four classes: normal, well, moderate, and poor. The contribution of this research is to develop a magnification invariant hybrid feature set comprising cartoon feature, Gabor wavelet, wavelet moments, HSV histogram, color auto-correlogram, color moments, and morphological features that can be used to characterize different grades. Besides, the classifier is modeled as a multiclass structure with six binary class Bayesian optimized… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cross-Layer Design for EH Systems with Finite Buffer Constraints

    Mohammed Baljon, Shailendra Mishra*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 129-144, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017509
    Abstract Energy harvesting (EH) technology in wireless communication is a promising approach to extend the lifetime of future wireless networks. A cross-layer optimal adaptation policy for a point-to-point energy harvesting (EH) wireless communication system with finite buffer constraints over a Rayleigh fading channel based on a Semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) is investigated. Most adaptation strategies in the literature are based on channel-dependent adaptation. However, besides considering the channel, the state of the energy capacitor and the data buffer are also involved when proposing a dynamic modulation policy for EH wireless networks. Unlike the channel-dependent policy, which is a physical layer-based optimization,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Semantic Supervision Method for Abstractive Summarization

    Sunqiang Hu1, Xiaoyu Li1, Yu Deng1,*, Yu Peng1, Bin Lin2, Shan Yang3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 145-158, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017441
    Abstract In recent years, many text summarization models based on pre-training methods have achieved very good results. However, in these text summarization models, semantic deviations are easy to occur between the original input representation and the representation that passed multi-layer encoder, which may result in inconsistencies between the generated summary and the source text content. The Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) improves the performance of many tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Although BERT has a strong capability to encode context, it lacks the fine-grained semantic representation. To solve these two problems, we proposed a semantic supervision method based on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Algorithm of Helmet Wearing Detection Based on AT-YOLO Deep Mode

    Qingyang Zhou1, Jiaohua Qin1,*, Xuyu Xiang1, Yun Tan1, Neal N. Xiong2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 159-174, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017480
    Abstract The existing safety helmet detection methods are mainly based on one-stage object detection algorithms with high detection speed to reach the real-time detection requirements, but they can’t accurately detect small objects and objects with obstructions. Therefore, we propose a helmet detection algorithm based on the attention mechanism (AT-YOLO). First of all, a channel attention module is added to the YOLOv3 backbone network, which can adaptively calibrate the channel features of the direction to improve the feature utilization, and a spatial attention module is added to the neck of the YOLOv3 network to capture the correlation between any positions in the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Action-Based Reasoning Approach for Playing Chess

    Norhan Hesham, Osama Abu-Elnasr*, Samir Elmougy
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 175-190, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015168
    Abstract Many previous research studies have demonstrated game strategies enabling virtual players to play and take actions mimicking humans. The Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) strategy tries to simulate human thinking regarding solving problems based on constructed knowledge. This paper suggests a new Action-Based Reasoning (ABR) strategy for a chess engine. This strategy mimics human experts’ approaches when playing chess, with the help of the CBR phases. This proposed engine consists of the following processes. Firstly, an action library compiled by parsing many grandmasters’ cases with their actions from different games is built. Secondly, this library reduces the search space by using two… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hep-Pred: Hepatitis C Staging Prediction Using Fine Gaussian SVM

    Taher M. Ghazal1,2, Marrium Anam3, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan1, Muzammil Hussain4,*, Muhammad Sajid Farooq5, Hafiz Muhammad Ammar Ali4, Munir Ahmad6, Tariq Rahim Soomro7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 191-203, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015436
    Abstract Hepatitis C is a contagious blood-borne infection, and it is mostly asymptomatic during the initial stages. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose and treat patients in the early stages of infection. The disease’s progression to its last stages makes diagnosis and treatment more difficult. In this study, an AI system based on machine learning algorithms is presented to help healthcare professionals with an early diagnosis of hepatitis C. The dataset used for our Hep-Pred model is based on a literature study, and includes the records of 1385 patients infected with the hepatitis C virus. Patients in this dataset received treatment… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Rotational Effect on the Propagation of Waves in a Magneto-Micropolar Thermoelastic Medium

    A. M. Abd-Alla1,*, S. M. Abo-Dahab2, M. A. Abdelhafez1, A. M. Farhan3,4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 205-220, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015563
    Abstract The present paper aims to explore how the magnetic field, ramp parameter, and rotation affect a generalized micropolar thermoelastic medium that is standardized isotropic within the half-space. By employing normal mode analysis and Lame’s potential theory, the authors could express analytically the components of displacement, stress, couple stress, and temperature field in the physical domain. They calculated such manners of expression numerically and plotted the matching graphs to highlight and make comparisons with theoretical findings. The highlights of the paper cover the impacts of various parameters on the rotating micropolar thermoelastic half-space. Nevertheless, the non-dimensional temperature is not affected by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Scattered Data Interpolation Using Cubic Trigonometric Bézier Triangular Patch

    Ishak Hashim1, Nur Nabilah Che Draman2, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim3,*, Wee Ping Yeo4, Dumitru Baleanu5,6,7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 221-236, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016006
    Abstract This paper discusses scattered data interpolation using cubic trigonometric Bézier triangular patches with continuity everywhere. We derive the condition on each adjacent triangle. On each triangular patch, we employ convex combination method between three local schemes. The final interpolant with the rational corrected scheme is suitable for regular and irregular scattered data sets. We tested the proposed scheme with 36,65, and 100 data points for some well-known test functions. The scheme is also applied to interpolate the data for the electric potential. We compared the performance between our proposed method and existing scattered data interpolation schemes such as Powell–Sabin (PS)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Fractional Drift Diffusion Model for Organic Semiconductor Devices

    Yi Yang*, Robert A. Nawrocki, Richard M. Voyles, Haiyan H. Zhang
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 237-266, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017439
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Fractional Calculus Applied to Complex Engineering Phenomena)
    Abstract Because charge carriers of many organic semiconductors (OSCs) exhibit fractional drift diffusion (Fr-DD) transport properties, the need to develop a Fr-DD model solver becomes more apparent. However, the current research on solving the governing equations of the Fr-DD model is practically nonexistent. In this paper, an iterative solver with high precision is developed to solve both the transient and steady-state Fr-DD model for organic semiconductor devices. The Fr-DD model is composed of two fractional-order carriers (i.e., electrons and holes) continuity equations coupled with Poisson’s equation. By treating the current density as constants within each pair of consecutive grid nodes, a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Features Prioritization Mechanism for Controllers in Software-Defined Networking

    Jehad Ali1, Byungkyu Lee2, Jimyung Oh2, Jungtae Lee3, Byeong-hee Roh1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 267-282, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017813
    Abstract The controller in software-defined networking (SDN) acts as strategic point of control for the underlying network. Multiple controllers are available, and every single controller retains a number of features such as the OpenFlow version, clustering, modularity, platform, and partnership support, etc. They are regarded as vital when making a selection among a set of controllers. As such, the selection of the controller becomes a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem with several features. Hence, an increase in this number will increase the computational complexity of the controller selection process. Previously, the selection of controllers based on features has been studied by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reversible Data Hiding Based on Varying Radix Numeral System

    J. Hemalatha1, S. Geetha2, R. Geetha3, C. Balasubramanian4, Daniela Elena Popescu5, D. Jude Hemanth6,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 283-300, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017203
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced signal acquisition and processing for Internet of Medical Things)
    Abstract A novel image reversible data-hiding scheme based on primitive and varying radix numerical model is presented in this article. Using varying radix, variable sum of data may be embedded in various pixels of images. This scheme is made adaptive using the correlation of the neighboring pixels. Messages are embedded as blocks of non-uniform length in the high-frequency regions of the rhombus mean interpolated image. A higher amount of data is embedded in the high-frequency regions and lesser data in the low-frequency regions of the image. The size of the embedded data depends on the statistics of the pixel distribution in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Joint Algorithm for Resource Allocation in D2D 5G Wireless Networks

    Fahd N. Al-Wesabi1,2,*, Imran Khan3, Mohammad Alamgeer4, Ali M. Al-Sharafi5, Bong Jun Choi6, Abdallah Aldosary7, Ehab Mahmoud Mohamed8,9
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 301-317, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018122
    Abstract With the rapid development of Internet technology, users have an increasing demand for data. The continuous popularization of traffic-intensive applications such as high-definition video, 3D visualization, and cloud computing has promoted the rapid evolution of the communications industry. In order to cope with the huge traffic demand of today’s users, 5G networks must be fast, flexible, reliable and sustainable. Based on these research backgrounds, the academic community has proposed D2D communication. The main feature of D2D communication is that it enables direct communication between devices, thereby effectively improve resource utilization and reduce the dependence on base stations, so it can… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    COVID19 Classification Using CT Images via Ensembles of Deep Learning Models

    Abdul Majid1, Muhammad Attique Khan1, Yunyoung Nam2,*, Usman Tariq3, Sudipta Roy4, Reham R. Mostafa5, Rasha H. Sakr6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 319-337, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016816
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Retrospective Big Data Analytics in Radiological Imaging for Precision Medicine)
    Abstract The recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has had a significant impact on human life and the economy around the world. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is used to screen for this disease, but its low sensitivity means that it is not sufficient for early detection and treatment. As RT-PCR is a time-consuming procedure, there is interest in the introduction of automated techniques for diagnosis. Deep learning has a key role to play in the field of medical imaging. The most important issue in this area is the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Probabilistic and Hierarchical Quantum Information Splitting Based on the Non-Maximally Entangled Cluster State

    Gang Xu1, Rui-Ting Shan2, Xiu-Bo Chen2, Mianxiong Dong3, Yu-Ling Chen4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 339-349, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017968
    Abstract With the emergence of classical communication security problems, quantum communication has been studied more extensively. In this paper, a novel probabilistic hierarchical quantum information splitting protocol is designed by using a non-maximally entangled four-qubit cluster state. Firstly, the sender Alice splits and teleports an arbitrary one-qubit secret state invisibly to three remote agents Bob, Charlie, and David. One agent David is in high grade, the other two agents Bob and Charlie are in low grade. Secondly, the receiver in high grade needs the assistance of one agent in low grade, while the receiver in low grade needs the aid of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    LOA-RPL: Novel Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for the Internet of Things Using Lion Optimization Algorithm to Maximize Network Lifetime

    Sankar Sennan1, Somula Ramasubbareddy2, Anand Nayyar3,4, Yunyoung Nam5,*, Mohamed Abouhawwash6,7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 351-371, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017360
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Trends in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning)
    Abstract Energy conservation is a significant task in the Internet of Things (IoT) because IoT involves highly resource-constrained devices. Clustering is an effective technique for saving energy by reducing duplicate data. In a clustering protocol, the selection of a cluster head (CH) plays a key role in prolonging the lifetime of a network. However, most cluster-based protocols, including routing protocols for low-power and lossy networks (RPLs), have used fuzzy logic and probabilistic approaches to select the CH node. Consequently, early battery depletion is produced near the sink. To overcome this issue, a lion optimization algorithm (LOA) for selecting CH in RPL… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Entropy-Based Approach to Detect DDoS Attacks on Software Defined Networking Controller

    Mohammad Aladaileh1, Mohammed Anbar1,*, Iznan H. Hasbullah1, Yousef K. Sanjalawe1,2, Yung-Wey Chong1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 373-391, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017972
    Abstract The Software-Defined Networking (SDN) technology improves network management over existing technology via centralized network control. The SDN provides a perfect platform for researchers to solve traditional network’s outstanding issues. However, despite the advantages of centralized control, concern about its security is rising. The more traditional network switched to SDN technology, the more attractive it becomes to malicious actors, especially the controller, because it is the network’s brain. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack on the controller could cripple the entire network. For that reason, researchers are always looking for ways to detect DDoS attacks against the controller with higher… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Method Based on UNET for Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Dileep Kumar Soother1,*, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar2, Tanweer Hussain1, Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry1, Sanaullah Mehran Ujjan1, Tayab Din Memon3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 393-408, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014941
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning for Data Analytics)
    Abstract Reliability of rotating machines is highly dependent on the smooth rolling of bearings. Thus, it is very essential for reliable operation of rotating machines to monitor the working condition of bearings using suitable fault diagnosis and condition monitoring approach. In the recent past, Deep Learning (DL) has become applicable in condition monitoring of rotating machines owing to its performance. This paper proposes a novel bearing fault diagnosis method based on the processing and analysis of the vibration images. The proposed method is the UNET model that is a recent development in DL models. The model is applied to the 2D… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Time and Quantity Based Hybrid Consolidation Algorithms for Reduced Cost Products Delivery

    Muhammad Ali Memon1, Asadullah Shaikh2,*, Adel Sulaiman2, Abdullah Alghamdi2, Mesfer Alrizq2, Bernard Archimède3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 409-432, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017653
    Abstract In today’s competitive business environment, the cost of a product is one of the most important considerations for its sale. Businesses are heavily involved in research strategies to minimize the cost of elements that can impact on the final price of the product. Logistics is one such factor. Numerous products arrive from diverse locations to consumers in today’s digital era of online businesses. Clearly, the logistics sector faces several dilemmas from order attributes to environmental changes in this regard. This has specially been noted during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic where the demands on online businesses have increased several fold. Consequently,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hybrid BWO-IACO Algorithm for Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    R. Punithavathi1, Chinnarao Kurangi2, S. P. Balamurugan3, Irina V. Pustokhina4, Denis A. Pustokhin5, K. Shankar6,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 433-449, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018231
    Abstract Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises a massive number of arbitrarily placed sensor nodes that are linked wirelessly to monitor the physical parameters from the target region. As the nodes in WSN operate on inbuilt batteries, the energy depletion occurs after certain rounds of operation and thereby results in reduced network lifetime. To enhance energy efficiency and network longevity, clustering and routing techniques are commonly employed in WSN. This paper presents a novel black widow optimization (BWO) with improved ant colony optimization (IACO) algorithm (BWO-IACO) for cluster based routing in WSN. The proposed BWO-IACO algorithm involves BWO based clustering process to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Oversampling Method Based on Gaussian Distribution and K-Means Clustering

    Masoud Muhammed Hassan1, Adel Sabry Eesa1,*, Ahmed Jameel Mohammed2, Wahab Kh. Arabo1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 451-469, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018280
    Abstract Learning from imbalanced data is one of the greatest challenging problems in binary classification, and this problem has gained more importance in recent years. When the class distribution is imbalanced, classical machine learning algorithms tend to move strongly towards the majority class and disregard the minority. Therefore, the accuracy may be high, but the model cannot recognize data instances in the minority class to classify them, leading to many misclassifications. Different methods have been proposed in the literature to handle the imbalance problem, but most are complicated and tend to simulate unnecessary noise. In this paper, we propose a simple… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Integrated CWT-CNN for Epilepsy Detection Using Multiclass EEG Dataset

    Sidra Naseem1, Kashif Javed1, Muhammad Jawad Khan1, Saddaf Rubab2, Muhammad Attique Khan3, Yunyoung Nam4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 471-486, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018239
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis)
    Abstract Electroencephalography is a common clinical procedure to record brain signals generated by human activity. EEGs are useful in Brain controlled interfaces and other intelligent Neuroscience applications, but manual analysis of these brainwaves is complicated and time-consuming even for the experts of neuroscience. Various EEG analysis and classification techniques have been proposed to address this problem however, the conventional classification methods require identification and learning of specific EEG characteristics beforehand. Deep learning models can learn features from data without having in depth knowledge of data and prior feature identification. One of the great implementations of deep learning is Convolutional Neural Network… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of a Five-Band Dual-Port Rectenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Surajo Muhammad1,*, Jun Jiat Tiang1, Sew Kin Wong1, Jamel Nebhen2, Amjad Iqbal1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 487-501, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018292
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems)
    Abstract This paper proposed the design of a dual-port rectifier with multi-frequency operations. The RF rectifier is achieved using a combination of L-section inductive impedance matching network (IMN) at Port-1 with a multiple stubs impedance transformer at Port-2. The fabricated prototype can harvest RF signal from GSM/900, GSM/1800, UMTS/2100, Wi-Fi/2.45 and LTE/2600 frequency bands at (0.94, 1.80, 2.10, 2.46, and 2.63 GHz), respectively. The rectifier occupies a small portion of a PCB board at 0.20 λg × 0.15 λg. The proposed circuit realized a measured peak RF-to-dc (radio frequency direct current) power conversion efficiency (PCE) of (21%, 22.76%, 25.33%, 21.57%, and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Speed Control of Motor Based on Improved Glowworm Swarm Optimization

    Zhenzhou Wang1, Yan Zhang1, Pingping Yu1,*, Ning Cao2, Heiner Dintera3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 503-519, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017624
    Abstract To better regulate the speed of brushless DC motors, an improved algorithm based on the original Glowworm Swarm Optimization is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves the problems of poor robustness, slow convergence, and low accuracy exhibited by traditional PID controllers. When selecting the glowworm neighborhood set, an optimization scheme based on the growth and competition behavior of weeds is applied to a single glowworm to prevent falling into a local optimal solution. After the glowworm’s position is updated, the league selection operator is introduced to search for the global optimal solution. Combining the local search ability of the invasive weed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Capacity and Fairness Maximization-Based Resource Allocation for Downlink NOMA Networks

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 521-537, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018351
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Pervasive Computing and Communication: Challenges, Technologies & Opportunities)
    Abstract Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is one of the leading technologies for 5G communication. User pairing (UP) and power allocation (PA) are the key controlling mechanisms for the optimization of the performance of NOMA systems. This paper presents a novel UP and PA (UPPA) technique for capacity and fairness maximization in NOMA called (CFM-UPPA). The impact of the power allocation coefficient and the ratio between the channel gains of the paired users on the sum-rate capacity and the fairness in NOMA is firstly investigated. Then, based on this investigation, the PA and UP algorithms of the CFM-UPPA technique are proposed. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Two-Phase Bidirectional Dual-Relay Selection Strategy for Wireless Relay Networks

    Samer Alabed*, Issam Maaz, Mohammad Al-Rabayah
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 539-553, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018061
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Reinforcement Learning Based solutions for Next-Generation Wireless Networks Coexistence)
    Abstract In this article, we introduce a new bi-directional dual-relay selection strategy with its bit error rate (BER) performance analysis. During the first step of the proposed strategy, two relays out of a set of N relay-nodes are selected in a way to optimize the system performance in terms of BER, based on the suggested algorithm which checks if the selected relays using the max-min criterion are the best ones. In the second step, the chosen relay-nodes perform an orthogonal space-time coding scheme using the two-phase relaying protocol to establish a bi-directional communication between the communicating terminals, leading to a significant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Support Vector Machine Assisted GPS Navigation in Limited Satellite Visibility

    Dah-Jing Jwo*, Jia-Chyi Wu, Kuan-Lin Ho
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 555-574, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018320
    Abstract This paper investigates performance improvement via the incorporation of the support vector machine (SVM) into the vector tracking loop (VTL) for the Global Positioning System (GPS) in limited satellite visibility. Unlike the traditional scalar tracking loop (STL), the tracking and navigation modules in the VTL are not independent anymore since the user’s position can be determined by using the information from other satellites and can be predicted on the basis of the states of the user. The method proposed in this paper makes use of the SVM to bridge the GPS signal and prevent the error growth due to signal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Beamforming Emulating Photonic Nanojets for Wireless Relay Networks

    Samer Alabed1, Ibrahim Mahariq1,*, Mohammad Salman1, Mustafa Kuzuoglu2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 575-588, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018245
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Reinforcement Learning Based solutions for Next-Generation Wireless Networks Coexistence)
    Abstract In this article, a low-cost electromagnetic structure emulating photonic nanojets is utilized to improve the efficiency of wireless relay networks. The spectral element method, due to its high accuracy, is used to verify the efficiency of the proposed structure by solving the associate field distribution. The application of optimal single-relay selection method shows that full diversity gain with low complexity can be achieved. In this paper, the proposed technique using smart relays combines the aforementioned two methods to attain the benefits of both methods by achieving the highest coding and diversity gain and enhances the overall network performance in terms… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Efficient MAC Protocols for Brain Computer Interface Applications

    Shams Al Ajrawi1,*, Ramesh Rao2, Mahasweta Sarkar3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 589-605, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016930
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrity and Multimedia Data Management in Healthcare Applications using IoT)
    Abstract Brain computer interface (BCI) systems permit individuals with motor disorders to utilize their thoughts as a mean to control external devices. BCI is a promising interdisciplinary field that gained the attention of many researchers. Yet, the development of BCI systems is facing several challenges, such as network lifetime. The Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol is the bottle- neck of network reliability. There are many MAC protocols that can be utilized for dependable transmission in BCI applications by altering their control parameters. However, modifying these parameters is another source of concern due to the scarcity in knowledge about the effect of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Segmentation and Classification of Stomach Abnormalities Using Deep Learning

    Javeria Naz1, Muhammad Attique Khan1, Majed Alhaisoni2, Oh-Young Song3,*, Usman Tariq4, Seifedine Kadry5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 607-625, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017101
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis)
    Abstract An automated system is proposed for the detection and classification of GI abnormalities. The proposed method operates under two pipeline procedures: (a) segmentation of the bleeding infection region and (b) classification of GI abnormalities by deep learning. The first bleeding region is segmented using a hybrid approach. The threshold is applied to each channel extracted from the original RGB image. Later, all channels are merged through mutual information and pixel-based techniques. As a result, the image is segmented. Texture and deep learning features are extracted in the proposed classification task. The transfer learning (TL) approach is used for the extraction… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mobility Management in Small Cell Cluster of Cellular Network

    Adeel Rafiq, Muhammad Afaq, Khizar Abbas, Wang-Cheol Song*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 627-645, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016529
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Intelligent Software-defined Networking (SDN) Technologies for Future Generation Networks)
    Abstract The installation of small cells in a 5G network extends the maximum coverage and provides high availability. However, this approach increases the handover overhead in the Core Network (CN) due to frequent handoffs. The variation of user density and movement inside a region of small cells also increases the handover overhead in CN. However, the present 5G system cannot reduce the handover overhead in CN under such circumstances because it relies on a traditionally rigid and complex hierarchical sequence for a handover procedure. Recently, Not Only Stack (NO Stack) architecture has been introduced for Radio Access Network (RAN) to reduce… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Immersion Analysis Through Eye-Tracking and Audio in Virtual Reality

    Jihoon Lee, Nammee Moon*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 647-660, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016712
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances of AI and Blockchain technologies for Future Smart City)
    Abstract In this study, using Head Mounted Display (HMD), which is one of the biggest advantage of Virtual Reality (VR) environment, tracks the user’s gaze in 360° video content, and examines how the gaze pattern is distributed according to the user’s immersion. As a result of analyzing the gaze pattern distribution of contents with high user immersion and contents with low user immersion through a questionnaire, it was confirmed that the higher the immersion, the more the gaze distribution tends to be concentrated in the center of the screen. Through this experiment, we were able to understand the factors that make… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Powering Mobile Networks with Optimal Green Energy for Sustainable Development

    Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Mahmoud A. Albreem2, Abu Jahid3, Kannadasan Raju4, Peerapong Uthansakul5,*, Jamel Nebhen6, Venkatesan Chandrasekaran4, Ayman A. Aly7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 661-677, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017059
    Abstract Green wireless networking is an emerging area for many societies, especially academia and industry, in light of economic and ecological perspectives. Empowering wireless infrastructures exploiting green power sources can enhance sustainability due to the adverse effects of conventional power sources and atmospheric circumstances. Moreover, the specific power supply requirements for a base station (BS), such as cost effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, and reliability, can be met by utilizing technological advances in renewable energy. Numerous drivers and motivators are involved in the deployment of renewable energy technologies and the transition toward green energy. Renewable energy is free, clean, and abundant in most… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Highly Efficient Algorithm for Phased-Array mmWave Massive MIMO Beamforming

    Ayman Abdulhadi Althuwayb1, Fazirulhisyam Hashim2, Jiun Terng Liew2, Imran Khan3, Jeong Woo Lee4, Emmanuel Ampoma Affum5, Abdeldjalil Ouahabi6,7,*, Sébastien Jacques8
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 679-694, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015421
    Abstract With the rapid development of the mobile internet and the internet of things (IoT), the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system is seeing explosive growth in data traffic. In addition, low-frequency spectrum resources are becoming increasingly scarce and there is now an urgent need to switch to higher frequency bands. Millimeter wave (mmWave) technology has several outstanding features—it is one of the most well-known 5G technologies and has the capacity to fulfil many of the requirements of future wireless networks. Importantly, it has an abundant resource spectrum, which can significantly increase the communication rate of a mobile communication system. As… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Abnormal Event Correlation and Detection Based on Network Big Data Analysis

    Zhichao Hu1, Xiangzhan Yu1,*, Jiantao Shi1, Lin Ye1,2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 695-711, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017574
    Abstract With the continuous development of network technology, various large-scale cyber-attacks continue to emerge. These attacks pose a severe threat to the security of systems, networks, and data. Therefore, how to mine attack patterns from massive data and detect attacks are urgent problems. In this paper, an approach for attack mining and detection is proposed that performs tasks of alarm correlation, false-positive elimination, attack mining, and attack prediction. Based on the idea of CluStream, the proposed approach implements a flow clustering method and a two-step algorithm that guarantees efficient streaming and clustering. The context of an alarm in the attack chain… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning Approach for Cosmetic Product Detection and Classification

    Se-Won Kim1, Sang-Woong Lee2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 713-725, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017292
    Abstract As the amount of online video content is increasing, consumers are becoming increasingly interested in various product names appearing in videos, particularly in cosmetic-product names in videos related to fashion, beauty, and style. Thus, the identification of such products by using image recognition technology may aid in the identification of current commercial trends. In this paper, we propose a two-stage deep-learning detection and classification method for cosmetic products. Specifically, variants of the YOLO network are used for detection, where the bounding box for each given input product is predicted and subsequently cropped for classification. We use four state-of-the-art classification networks,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Soft Tissue Acupuncture Model Based on Mass-Spring Force Net

    Xiaorui Zhang1,2,*, Tong Xu1, Wei Sun2, Jiali Duan1, Sunil Kumar Jha3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 727-745, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018182
    Abstract In the simulation of acupuncture manipulation, it is necessary to accurately capture the information of acupuncture points and particles around them. Therefore, a soft tissue modeling method that can accurately track model particles is needed. In this paper, a soft tissue acupuncture model based on the mass-spring force net is designed. MSM is used as the auxiliary model and the SHF model is combined. SHF is used to establish a three-layer soft tissue model of skin, fat, and muscle, and a layer of the MSM based force network is covered on the surface of soft tissue to realize the complementary… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Early COVID-19 Symptoms Identification Using Hybrid Unsupervised Machine Learning Techniques

    Omer Ali1,2, Mohamad Khairi Ishak1,*, Muhammad Kamran Liaquat Bhatti2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 747-766, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018098
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Trends in Machine Intelligence respected to Medical Field Applications)
    Abstract The COVID-19 virus exhibits pneumonia-like symptoms, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and may be fatal. Many COVID-19 contraction experiments require comprehensive clinical procedures at medical facilities. Clinical studies help to make a correct diagnosis of COVID-19, where the disease has already spread to the organs in most cases. Prompt and early diagnosis is indispensable for providing patients with the possibility of early clinical diagnosis and slowing down the disease spread. Therefore, clinical investigations in patients with COVID-19 have revealed distinct patterns of breathing relative to other diseases such as flu and cold, which are worth investigating. Current supervised… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An E-Business Event Stream Mechanism for Improving User Tracing Processes

    Ayman Mohamed Mostafa1,2,*, Saleh N. Almuayqil1, Wael Said2,3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 767-784, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018236
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning-based Intelligent Systems: Theories, Algorithms, and Applications)
    Abstract With the rapid development in business transactions, especially in recent years, it has become necessary to develop different mechanisms to trace business user records in web server log in an efficient way. Online business transactions have increased, especially when the user or customer cannot obtain the required service. For example, with the spread of the epidemic Coronavirus (COVID-19) throughout the world, there is a dire need to rely more on online business processes. In order to improve the efficiency and performance of E-business structure, a web server log must be well utilized to have the ability to trace and record… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    3D Semantic Deep Learning Networks for Leukemia Detection

    Javaria Amin1, Muhammad Sharif2, Muhammad Almas Anjum3, Ayesha Siddiqa1, Seifedine Kadry4, Yunyoung Nam5,*, Mudassar Raza2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 785-799, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015249
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI, IoT, Blockchain Assisted Intelligent Solutions to Medical and Healthcare Systems)
    Abstract White blood cells (WBCs) are a vital part of the immune system that protect the body from different types of bacteria and viruses. Abnormal cell growth destroys the body’s immune system, and computerized methods play a vital role in detecting abnormalities at the initial stage. In this research, a deep learning technique is proposed for the detection of leukemia. The proposed methodology consists of three phases. Phase I uses an open neural network exchange (ONNX) and YOLOv2 to localize WBCs. The localized images are passed to Phase II, in which 3D-segmentation is performed using deeplabv3 as a base network of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hybrid Segmentation Scheme for Skin Features Extraction Using Dermoscopy Images

    Jehyeok Rew, Hyungjoon Kim, Eenjun Hwang*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 801-817, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017892
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis)
    Abstract Objective and quantitative assessment of skin conditions is essential for cosmeceutical studies and research on skin aging and skin regeneration. Various handcraft-based image processing methods have been proposed to evaluate skin conditions objectively, but they have unavoidable disadvantages when used to analyze skin features accurately. This study proposes a hybrid segmentation scheme consisting of Deeplab v3+ with an Inception-ResNet-v2 backbone, LightGBM, and morphological processing (MP) to overcome the shortcomings of handcraft-based approaches. First, we apply Deeplab v3+ with an Inception-ResNet-v2 backbone for pixel segmentation of skin wrinkles and cells. Then, LightGBM and MP are used to enhance the pixel segmentation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ensemble Based Temporal Weighting and Pareto Ranking (ETP) Model for Effective Root Cause Analysis

    Naveen Kumar Seerangan1,*, S. Vijayaragavan Shanmugam2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 819-830, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.012135
    Abstract Root-cause identification plays a vital role in business decision making by providing effective future directions for the organizations. Aspect extraction and sentiment extraction plays a vital role in identifying the root-causes. This paper proposes the Ensemble based temporal weighting and pareto ranking (ETP) model for Root-cause identification. Aspect extraction is performed based on rules and is followed by opinion identification using the proposed boosted ensemble model. The obtained aspects are validated and ranked using the proposed aspect weighing scheme. Pareto-rule based aspect selection is performed as the final selection mechanism and the results are presented for business decision making. Experiments… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Multiclass Skin Cancer Detection Using Convolution Neural Networks

    Reham Alabduljabbar*, Hala Alshamlan
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 831-847, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018402
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Trends in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning)
    Abstract The worldwide mortality rate due to cancer is second only to cardiovascular diseases. The discovery of image processing, latest artificial intelligence techniques, and upcoming algorithms can be used to effectively diagnose and prognose cancer faster and reduce the mortality rate. Efficiently applying these latest techniques has increased the survival chances during recent years. The research community is making significant continuous progress in developing automated tools to assist dermatologists in decision making. The datasets used for the experimentation and analysis are ISBI 2016, ISBI 2017, and HAM 10000. In this work pertained models are used to extract the efficient feature. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Stochastic Flight Problem Simulation to Minimize Cost of Refuelling

    Said Ali Hassan1, Khalid Alnowibet2, Miral H. Khodeir1, Prachi Agrawal3, Adel F. Alrasheedi2, Ali Wagdy Mohamed4,5,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 849-871, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018389
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Role of Computer in Modelling & Solving Real-World Problems)
    Abstract Commercial airline companies are continuously seeking to implement strategies for minimizing costs of fuel for their flight routes as acquiring jet fuel represents a significant part of operating and managing expenses for airline activities. A nonlinear mixed binary mathematical programming model for the airline fuel task is presented to minimize the total cost of refueling in an entire flight route problem. The model is enhanced to include possible discounts in fuel prices, which are performed by adding dummy variables and some restrictive constraints, or by fitting a suitable distribution function that relates prices to purchased quantities. The obtained fuel plan… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mining Software Repository for Cleaning Bugs Using Data Mining Technique

    Nasir Mahmood1, Yaser Hafeez1, Khalid Iqbal2, Shariq Hussain3, Muhammad Aqib1, Muhammad Jamal4, Oh-Young Song5,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 873-893, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016614
    Abstract Despite advances in technological complexity and efforts, software repository maintenance requires reusing the data to reduce the effort and complexity. However, increasing ambiguity, irrelevance, and bugs while extracting similar data during software development generate a large amount of data from those data that reside in repositories. Thus, there is a need for a repository mining technique for relevant and bug-free data prediction. This paper proposes a fault prediction approach using a data-mining technique to find good predictors for high-quality software. To predict errors in mining data, the Apriori algorithm was used to discover association rules by fixing confidence at more… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Implications COVID-19 on Performance and Energy Management in the Production Electricity

    Noor Shakir Mahmood1, Ahmed Ali Ajmi1, Shamsul Sarip2,*, Khairur Rijal Jamaludin2, Hazilah Mad Kaidi2, Hayati Abdul Talib2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 895-911, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018012
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and Learning Approach for Learning Process in COVID-19/Industrial Revolution 4.0)
    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has directly impacted the electric power industry; the energy sector has experienced huge losses in electricity production. These losses have also affected the reliability of communication and employees’ performance, hence destabilizing the electric power system. This article aims at achieving two objectives. First, analyzing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the communication of performance (human error and human factors) and energy management in electricity production. Second, to develop a conceptual framework model to alleviate effects of the pandemic on the power sector and then improve energy management and human performance. This paper involves investigating the influence… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Class Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Data with Machine Learning Algorithms

    Galimkair Mutanov, Vladislav Karyukin*, Zhanl Mamykova
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 913-930, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017827
    Abstract The volume of social media data on the Internet is constantly growing. This has created a substantial research field for data analysts. The diversity of articles, posts, and comments on news websites and social networks astonishes imagination. Nevertheless, most researchers focus on posts on Twitter that have a specific format and length restriction. The majority of them are written in the English language. As relatively few works have paid attention to sentiment analysis in the Russian and Kazakh languages, this article thoroughly analyzes news posts in the Kazakhstan media space. The amassed datasets include texts labeled according to three sentiment… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New BEM Modeling Algorithm for Size-Dependent Thermopiezoelectric Problems in Smart Nanostructures

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy1,2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 931-944, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018191
    Abstract The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new theory called size-dependent thermopiezoelectricity for smart nanostructures. The proposed theory includes the combination of thermoelastic and piezoelectric influences which enable us to describe the deformation and mechanical behaviors of smart nanostructures subjected to thermal, and piezoelectric loadings. Because of difficulty of experimental research problems associated with the proposed theory. Therefore, we propose a new boundary element method (BEM) formulation and algorithm for the solution of such problems, which involve temperatures, normal heat fluxes, displacements, couple-tractions, rotations, force-tractions, electric displacement, and normal electric displacement as primary variables within the BEM… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Enabling Reachability Across Multiple Domains Without Controller Synchronization in SDN

    Nauman Khan1,2, Rosli Bin Salleh1,*, Ihsan Ali1, Zahid Khan3, Noman Mazhar1, Roobaea Alroobaea4, Fahad Almansour5, Usman Ali1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 945-965, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017394
    Abstract Software-defined networking (SDN) makes network agile and flexible due to its programmable approach. An extensive network has multiple domains in SDN for the scalability and performance of the network. However, the inter-domain link is also crucial for the stability of the entire network on the data plane layer. More than one inter-domain connection enhances the scalability of the data plane layer. However, it faces a reachability problem with the principal root, which causes forwarding loops and packet drops in the network, thereby degrading network performance. The proposed solution is a multiple controller architecture; however, this approach increases the complexity and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stress Distribution in Composites with Co-Phase Periodically Curved Two Neighboring Hollow Fibers

    Resat Kosker1,*, Ismail Gulten2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 967-983, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017857
    Abstract In this paper, stress distribution is examined in the case where infinite length co-phase periodically curved two neighboring hollow fibers are contained by an infinite elastic body. The midline of the fibers is assumed to be in the same plane. Using the three-dimensional geometric linear exact equations of the elasticity theory, research is carried out by use of the piecewise homogeneous body model. Moreover, the body is assumed to be loaded at infinity by uniformly distributed normal forces along the hollow fibers. On the inter-medium between the hollow fibers and matrix surfaces, complete cohesion conditions are satisfied. The boundary form… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ecological Security Evaluation Algorithm for Resource-Exhausted Cities Based on the PSR Model

    Xiaozhou Li1,2, Zhenggang Xu1, Yuanyuan Fu3, Qi Jin1, Yunlin Zhao1,*, Neal N. Xiong4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 985-1001, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017357
    Abstract Today, resource depletion threatens a number of resource-based cities in China. The ecological security problem caused by the long-term exploitation of natural resources is a key issue to be solved in the development of resource-exhausted cities. Using 23 indicators, this study evaluated the ecological security status and development trends of 21 resource-exhausted cities in China from 2011 to 2017. The results showed that from 2011 to 2015, the overall ecological security of this type of city was low, with over 60% of the cities at an unsafe level. However, ecological security improved rapidly after 2016, and by 2017, all of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Efficient Connectivity Restoration Technique (ECRT) for Wireless Sensor Network

    Mahmood ul Hassan1,*, Shahzad Ali2, Khalid Mahmood3, Muhammad Kashif Saeed4, Amin Al-Awady1, Kamran Javed5, Ansar Munir Shah6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1003-1019, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018264
    Abstract Node failure in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a fundamental problem because WSNs operate in hostile environments. The failure of nodes leads to network partitioning that may compromise the basic operation of the sensor network. To deal with such situations, a rapid recovery mechanism is required for restoring inter-node connectivity. Due to the immense importance and need for a recovery mechanism, several different approaches are proposed in the literature. However, the proposed approaches have shortcomings because they do not focus on energy-efficient operation and coverage-aware mechanisms while performing connectivity restoration. Moreover, most of these approaches rely on the excessive mobility… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis and Characterization of Normally-Off Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Shahzaib Anwar1, Sardar Muhammad Gulfam1,*, Bilal Muhammad2, Syed Junaid Nawaz1, Khursheed Aurangzeb3, Mohammad Kaleem1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1021-1037, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018248
    Abstract High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on gallium nitride (GaN) is one of the most promising candidates for the future generation of high frequencies and high-power electronic applications. This research work aims at designing and characterization of enhancement-mode or normally-off GaN HEMT. The impact of variations in gate length, mole concentration, barrier variations and other important design parameters on the performance of normally-off GaN HEMT is thoroughly investigated. An increase in the gate length causes a decrease in the drain current and transconductance, while an increase in drain current and transconductance can be achieved by increasing the concentration of aluminium… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    AntiFlamPred: An Anti-Inflammatory Peptide Predictor for Drug Selection Strategies

    Fahad Alotaibi1, Muhammad Attique2,3, Yaser Daanial Khan2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1039-1055, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017297
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Digital Technology and Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Dentistry)
    Abstract Several autoimmune ailments and inflammation-related diseases emphasize the need for peptide-based therapeutics for their treatment and established substantial consideration. Though, the wet-lab experiments for the investigation of anti-inflammatory proteins/peptides (“AIP”) are usually very costly and remain time-consuming. Therefore, before wet-lab investigations, it is essential to develop in-silico identification models to classify prospective anti-inflammatory candidates for the facilitation of the drug development process. Several anti-inflammatory prediction tools have been proposed in the recent past, yet, there is a space to induce enhancement in prediction performance in terms of precision and efficiency. An exceedingly accurate anti-inflammatory prediction model is proposed, named AntiFlamPred… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Identity-Based Secure and Optimal Authentication Scheme for the Cloud Computing Environment

    K. Raju*, M. Chinnadurai
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1057-1072, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016068
    Abstract Security is a critical issue in cloud computing (CC) because attackers can fabricate data by creating, copying, or deleting data with no user authorization. Most of the existing techniques make use of password-based authentication for encrypting data. Password-based schemes suffer from several issues and can be easily compromised. This paper presents a new concept of hybrid metaheuristic optimization as an identity-based secure and optimal authentication (HMO-ISOA) scheme for CC environments. The HMO-ISOA technique makes use of iris and fingerprint biometrics. Initially, the HMO-ISOA technique involves a directional local ternary quantized extrema pattern–based feature extraction process to extract features from the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Noise Reduction in Industry Based on Virtual Instrumentation

    Radek Martinek1, Rene Jaros1, Jan Baros1, Lukas Danys1, Aleksandra Kawala-Sterniuk2, Jan Nedoma3,*, Zdenek Machacek1, Jiri Koziorek1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1073-1096, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017568
    Abstract This paper discusses the reduction of background noise in an industrial environment to extend human-machine-interaction. In the Industry 4.0 era, the mass development of voice control (speech recognition) in various industrial applications is possible, especially as related to augmented reality (such as hands-free control via voice commands). As Industry 4.0 relies heavily on radiofrequency technologies, some brief insight into this problem is provided, including the Internet of things (IoT) and 5G deployment. This study was carried out in cooperation with the industrial partner Brose CZ spol. s.r.o., where sound recordings were made to produce a dataset. The experimental environment comprised… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Optimized Data Fusion Paradigm for WSN Based on Neural Networks

    Moath Alsafasfeh1,*, Zaid A. Arida2, Omar A. Saraereh3, Qais Alsafasfeh4, Salem Alemaishat5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1097-1108, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018187
    Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gotten a lot of attention as useful tools for gathering data. The energy problem has been a fundamental constraint and challenge faced by many WSN applications due to the size and cost constraints of the sensor nodes. This paper proposed a data fusion model based on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) model to address the problem of a large number of invalid or redundant data. Using three layered-based BPNNs and a TEEN threshold, the proposed model describes the cluster structure and filters out unnecessary details. During the information transmission process, the neural network’s output… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Locating Famous Tea’s Picking Point Based on Shi-Tomasi Algorithm

    Lei Zhang1,2, Lang Zou1,2, Chuanyu Wu1,2,*, Jianneng Chen1,2, Heping Chen3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1109-1122, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016495
    Abstract To address the difficulty of locating the picking point of a tea sprout during the intelligent automatic picking of famous tea, this study proposes a method to obtain information on the picking point on the basis of the Shi-Tomasi algorithm. This method can rapidly identify a tea sprout’s picking point and obtain its coordinates. Images of tea sprouts in a tea garden were collected, and the G-B component of tea sprouts was segmented using the Otsu algorithm. The region of interest was set with the lowest point of its contour as the center. The characteristics of tea buds and branches… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Resource Assessment of Wind Energy Potential of Mokha in Yemen with Weibull Speed

    Abdulbaset El-Bshah1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2,3,*, Ameen M. Al-Kustoban4, Mohammad Alamgeer5, Nadhem Nemri5, Majdy M. Eltahir5, Hany Mahgoub6, Noha Negm7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1123-1140, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018427
    Abstract The increasing use of fossil fuels has a significant impact on the environment and ecosystem, which increases the rate of pollution. Given the high potential of renewable energy sources in Yemen and other Arabic countries, and the absence of similar studies in the region. This study aims to examine the potential of wind energy in Mokha region. This was done by analyzing and evaluating wind properties, determining available energy density, calculating wind energy extracted at different altitudes, and then computing the capacity factor for a few wind turbines and determining the best. Weibull speed was verified as the closest to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Competency Driven Resource Evaluation Method for Business Process Intelligence

    Abid Sohail1,*, Dhanapal Durai Dominic2, Mohammad Hijji3, Muhammad Arif Butt4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1141-1157, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018023
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Models for Pro-Smart Environments in Data Science Assisted IoT Systems)
    Abstract Enterprises are continuously aiming at improving the execution of processes to achieve a competitive edge. One of the established ways of improving process performance is to assign the most appropriate resources to each task of the process. However, evaluations of business process improvement approaches have established that a method that can guide decision-makers to identify the most appropriate resources for a task of process improvement in a structured way, is missing. It is because the relationship between resources and tasks is less understood and advancement in business process intelligence is also ignored. To address this problem an integrated resource classification… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Detecting Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Fog Computing for Social Media

    Farouq Aliyu1,*, Tarek Sheltami1, Ashraf Mahmoud1, Louai Al-Awami1, Ansar Yasar2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1159-1181, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016938
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Powering the Future Intelligence - Ambient Social Media Analytics)
    Abstract Fog computing (FC) is a networking paradigm where wireless devices known as fog nodes are placed at the edge of the network (close to the Internet of Things (IoT) devices). Fog nodes provide services in lieu of the cloud. Thus, improving the performance of the network and making it attractive to social media-based systems. Security issues are one of the most challenges encountered in FC. In this paper, we propose an anomaly-based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) against Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack in the fog layer. The system uses special nodes known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS) nodes to detect… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cryptographic Based Secure Model on Dataset for Deep Learning Algorithms

    Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Mohsen Marjani1, N. Z. Jhanjhi1, Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashim2, Abdulwahab Ali Almazroi3, Abdulaleem Ali Almazroi4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1183-1200, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017199
    Abstract Deep learning (DL) algorithms have been widely used in various security applications to enhance the performances of decision-based models. Malicious data added by an attacker can cause several security and privacy problems in the operation of DL models. The two most common active attacks are poisoning and evasion attacks, which can cause various problems, including wrong prediction and misclassification of decision-based models. Therefore, to design an efficient DL model, it is crucial to mitigate these attacks. In this regard, this study proposes a secure neural network (NN) model that provides data security during model training and testing phases. The main… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Resource Allocation and Optimization in Device-to-Device Communication 5G Networks

    Fahad Ahmed Al-Zahrani1, Imran Khan2, Mahdi Zareei3,*, Asim Zeb4, Abdul Waheed5,6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1201-1214, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018386
    Abstract The next-generation wireless networks are expected to provide higher capacity, system throughput with improved energy efficiency. One of the key technologies, to meet the demand for high-rate transmission, is device-to-device (D2D) communication which allows users who are close to communicating directly instead of transiting through base stations, and D2D communication users to share the cellular user chain under the control of the cellular network. As a new generation of cellular network technology, D2D communication technology has the advantages of improving spectrum resource utilization and improving system throughput and has become one of the key technologies that have been widely concerned… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evolution-Based Performance Prediction of Star Cricketers

    Haseeb Ahmad1, Shahbaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Asif1, Mobashar Rehman2,*, Abdullah Alharbi3, Zahid Ullah4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1215-1232, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016659
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI for Wearable Sensing--Smartphone / Smartwatch User Identification / Authentication)
    Abstract Cricket databases contain rich and useful information to examine and forecasting patterns and trends. This paper predicts Star Cricketers (SCs) from batting and bowling domains by employing supervised machine learning models. With this aim, each player’s performance evolution is retrieved by using effective features that incorporate the standard performance measures of each player and their peers. Prediction is performed by applying Bayesian-rule, function and decision-tree-based models. Experimental evaluations are performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. In particular, the impact of the individual features on the prediction of SCs are analyzed. Moreover, the category and model-wise feature evaluations… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Parametric Methods for the Regional Assessment of Cardiac Wall Motion Abnormalities: Comparison Study

    Narjes Benameur1,*, Mazin Abed Mohammed2, Ramzi Mahmoudi3,4, Younes Arous5, Begonya Garcia-Zapirain6, Karrar Hameed Abdulkareem7, Mohamed Hedi Bedoui3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1233-1252, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016860
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced signal acquisition and processing for Internet of Medical Things)
    Abstract Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is mainly assessed by global contractile indices such as ejection fraction and LV Volumes in cardiac MRI. While these indices give information about the presence or not of LV alteration, they are not able to identify the location and the size of such alteration. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of three parametric imaging techniques used in cardiac MRI for the regional quantification of cardiac dysfunction. The proposed approaches were evaluated on 20 patients with myocardial infarction and 20 subjects with normal function. Three parametric images approaches: covariance analysis, parametric images based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Classification and Categorization of COVID-19 Outbreak in Pakistan

    Amber Ayoub1, Kainaat Mahboob1, Abdul Rehman Javed2, Muhammad Rizwan1, Thippa Reddy Gadekallu2, Mustufa Haider Abidi3,*, Mohammed Alkahtani4,5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1253-1269, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015655
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Healthcare Analytics for COVID-19)
    Abstract Coronavirus is a potentially fatal disease that normally occurs in mammals and birds. Generally, in humans, the virus spreads through aerial droplets of any type of fluid secreted from the body of an infected person. Coronavirus is a family of viruses that is more lethal than other unpremeditated viruses. In December 2019, a new variant, i.e., a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) developed in Wuhan province, China. Since January 23, 2020, the number of infected individuals has increased rapidly, affecting the health and economies of many countries, including Pakistan. The objective of this research is to provide a system to classify and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Complex Problems Solution as a Service Based on Predictive Optimization and Tasks Orchestration in Smart Cities

    Shabir Ahmad1, Jehad Ali2, Faisal Jamil3, Taeg Keun Whangbo1, DoHyeun Kim3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1271-1288, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017773
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning-based Intelligent Systems: Theories, Algorithms, and Applications)
    Abstract Smart cities have different contradicting goals having no apparent solution. The selection of the appropriate solution, which is considered the best compromise among the candidates, is known as complex problem-solving. Smart city administrators face different problems of complex nature, such as optimal energy trading in microgrids and optimal comfort index in smart homes, to mention a few. This paper proposes a novel architecture to offer complex problem solutions as a service (CPSaaS) based on predictive model optimization and optimal task orchestration to offer solutions to different problems in a smart city. Predictive model optimization uses a machine learning module and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling of Heart Rate Variability Using Time-Frequency Representations

    Ghaylen Laouini1, Ibrahim Mahariq1, Thabet Abdeljawad2,3,4,*, Hasan Aksoy5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1289-1299, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018411
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced signal acquisition and processing for Internet of Medical Things)
    Abstract The heart rate variability signal is highly correlated with the respiration even at high workload exercise. It is also known that this phenomenon still exists during increasing exercise. In the current study, we managed to model this correlation during increasing exercise using the time varying integral pulse frequency modulation (TVIPFM) model that relates the mechanical modulation (MM) to the respiration and the cardiac rhythm. This modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is able to simultaneously decrease sympathetic and increase parasympathetic activity. The TVIPFM model takes into consideration the effect of the increasing exercise test, where the effect of a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Adaptive Power Control Aware Depth Routing in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Ghufran Ahmed1, Saiful Islam2, Ihsan Ali3, Isra Adil Hayder4, Abdelmuttlib Ibrahim Abdalla Ahmed3, Muhammad Talha5, Sultan S. Alshamrani6, Ag Asri Ag Ibrahim7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1301-1322, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017062
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Deep Learning and Parallel Computing for Intelligent and Efficient IoT)
    Abstract Underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) refers to a procedure that promotes a broad spectrum of aquatic applications. UASNs can be practically applied in seismic checking, ocean mine identification, resource exploration, pollution checking, and disaster avoidance. UASN confronts many difficulties and issues, such as low bandwidth, node movements, propagation delay, 3D arrangement, energy limitation, and high-cost production and arrangement costs caused by antagonistic underwater situations. Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are considered a major issue being encountered in energy management because of the limited battery power of their nodes. Moreover, the harsh underwater environment requires vendors to design and deploy energy-hungry… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Efficient CNN-Based Automated Diagnosis Framework from COVID-19 CT Images

    Walid El-Shafai1, Noha A. El-Hag2, Ghada M. El-Banby3, Ashraf A. M. Khalaf2, Naglaa F. Soliman4,*, Abeer D. Algarni4, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie1,4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1323-1341, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017385
    Abstract Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread rapidly in the world. It has dramatically affected daily lives, public health, and the world economy. This paper presents a segmentation and classification framework of COVID-19 images based on deep learning. Firstly, the classification process is employed to discriminate between COVID-19, non-COVID, and pneumonia by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Then, the segmentation process is applied for COVID-19 and pneumonia CT images. Finally, the resulting segmented images are used to identify the infected region, whether COVID-19 or pneumonia. The proposed CNN consists of four Convolutional (Conv) layers, four batch normalization layers, and four Rectified… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning and Entity Embedding-Based Intrusion Detection Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Bandar Almaslukh*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1343-1360, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017914
    Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are considered promising for applications such as military surveillance and healthcare. The security of these networks must be ensured in order to have reliable applications. Securing such networks requires more attention, as they typically implement no dedicated security appliance. In addition, the sensors have limited computing resources and power and storage, which makes WSNs vulnerable to various attacks, especially denial of service (DoS). The main types of DoS attacks against WSNs are blackhole, grayhole, flooding, and scheduling. There are two primary techniques to build an intrusion detection system (IDS): signature-based and data-driven-based. This study uses the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Adaptive Relay Selection Scheme for Minimization of the Transmission Time

    Yu-Jin Na1, Ji-Sung Jung1, Young-Hwan You2, Hyoung-Kyu Song1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1361-1373, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018481
    Abstract As the installation of small cells increases, the use of relay also increases. The relay operates as a base station as well as just an amplifier. As the roles and types of relays become more diverse, appropriate relay selection technology is an effective way to improve communication performance. Many researches for relay selection have been studied to secure the reliability of relay communication. In this paper, the relay selection scheme is proposed for a cooperative system using decode-and-forward (DF) relaying scheme in the mobile communication system. To maintain the transmission rate, the proposed scheme classifies a candidate group considering the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    GAN-GLS: Generative Lyric Steganography Based on Generative Adversarial Networks

    Cuilin Wang1, Yuling Liu1,*, Yongju Tong1, Jingwen Wang2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1375-1390, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017950
    Abstract Steganography based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) has become a hot topic among researchers. Due to GANs being unsuitable for text fields with discrete characteristics, researchers have proposed GAN-based steganography methods that are less dependent on text. In this paper, we propose a new method of generative lyrics steganography based on GANs, called GAN-GLS. The proposed method uses the GAN model and the large-scale lyrics corpus to construct and train a lyrics generator. In this method, the GAN uses a previously generated line of a lyric as the input sentence in order to generate the next line of the lyric.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    PAPR Reduction in NOMA by Using Hybrid Algorithms

    Mohit Kumar Sharma, Arun Kumar*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1391-1406, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017666
    Abstract Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is gaining considerable attention due to its features, such as low out-of-band radiation, signal detection capability, high spectrum gain, fast data rate, and massive D2D connectivity. It may be considered for 5G networks. However, the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is viewed as a significant disadvantage of a NOMA waveform, and it weakens the quality of signals and the throughput of the scheme. In this article, we introduce a modified NOMA system by employing a block of wavelet transform, an alternative to FFT (Fast Fourier transform). The modified system combines the details of fractional frequency and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Breast Lesions Detection and Classification via YOLO-Based Fusion Models

    Asma Baccouche1,*, Begonya Garcia-Zapirain2, Cristian Castillo Olea2, Adel S. Elmaghraby1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 1407-1425, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018461
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis)
    Abstract With recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, the use of deep learning models achieved remarkable advances in computer vision, ecommerce, cybersecurity, and healthcare. Particularly, numerous applications provided efficient solutions to assist radiologists for medical imaging analysis. For instance, automatic lesion detection and classification in mammograms is still considered a crucial task that requires more accurate diagnosis and precise analysis of abnormal lesions. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end system, which is based on You-Only-Look-Once (YOLO) model, to simultaneously localize and classify suspicious breast lesions from entire mammograms. The proposed system first preprocesses the raw images, then recognizes abnormal regions as… More >

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