Special Issue "Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems"

Submission Deadline: 30 November 2021 (closed)
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Guest Editors
Engr. Saad Hassan Kiani, City University of Science and Information Technology, Pakistan.
Dr. Mujeeb Abdullah, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan.
Dr. Naeem Ahmad Jan, Iqra National University, Pakistan.
Dr. Azam Mehbon, University of West Australia, Australia.


5G will support significantly faster mobile broadband speeds, low latency and reliable communications, as well as enabling the full potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). This will open up the possibility for new services such as tactile communications, smart manufacturing and cities, in addition to enhanced broadband connectivity. Pivotal to 5G is the use of the millimeter wave band, which will support a network of small cells enabling hotspot zones of high capacity and area efficiency. The forthcoming 5G system will truly be a mobile multimedia communication platform that constitutes a converged networking arena that not only includes legacy heterogeneous mobile networks, but advanced radio interfaces and the possibility to operate at mm wave frequencies to capitalise on the large swathe of available bandwidth. This will set in place extensive design requirements that even build on the latest 5G roll-out in the sub 6GHz band.


Future emerging handsets and base stations will require antenna technology that is multimode in nature, energy efficient, and above all able to operate on the mm wave band in synergy with legacy 4G and sub-6GHz 5G. Antennas should be compact in nature, but with engineering requirements that include increased power, larger bandwidth, higher gain, and insensitivity to the hand-held effect of human users. This requires very innovative solutions in antenna design, which can operate in single and MIMO/Array configuration.


This Special Issue aims to bring together academic and industrial researchers to identify and discuss technical challenges and new results related to the design of 5G antennas.

• Antenna design techniques and measurement for 5G systems
• Multiple antennas for advanced 5G transceivers
• Multiband 5G antenna
• 5G Dielectric Resonator antennas
• Antennas on flexible substrates for medical applications
• Wearable and implantable antennas
• RFID antennas
• Antennas for wireless power transmission and harvesting
• Reconfigurable antennas and devices
• Mutual coupling and isolation techniques between antenna elements
• UWB antennas
• mmwave antennas
• Origami Antenna
• Chiral Materials

Published Papers
  • AMC Integrated Multilayer Wearable Antenna for Multiband WBAN Applications
  • Abstract In this paper, a compact, efficient and easy to fabricate wearable antenna integrated with Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) is presented. Addition of slots and bevels/cuts in the rectangular monopole patch antenna yield a wide bandwidth along with band notches. The proposed antenna is backed with an AMC metasurface that changes the bidirectional radiation pattern to a unidirectional, thus, considerably reducing the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR). The demonstrated antenna has a good coverage radiating away from the body and presents reduced radiation towards the body with a front-to-back ratio of 13 dB and maximum gain of 3.54 dB. The proposed design… More
  •   Views:45       Downloads:35        Download PDF

  • Metamaterial-Based Compact Antenna with Defected Ground Structure for 5G and Beyond
  • Abstract In this paper, a unit cell of a single-negative metamaterial structure loaded with a meander line and defected ground structure (DGS) is investigated as the principle radiating element of an antenna. The unit cell antenna causes even or odd mode resonances similar to the unit cell structure depending on the orientation of the microstrip feed used to excite the unit cell. However, the orientation which gives low-frequency resonance is considered here. The unit cell antenna is then loaded with a meander line which is parallel to the split bearing side and connects the other two sides orthogonal to the split… More
  •   Views:37       Downloads:25        Download PDF

  • Gain Enhancement of Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure
  • Abstract High gain antennas are highly desirable for long-range wireless communication systems. In this paper, a compact, low profile, and high gain dielectric resonator antenna is proposed, fabricated, experimentally tested, and verified. The proposed antenna system has a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna with a height of 9 mm and a radius of 6.35 mm as a radiating element. The proposed dielectric resonator antenna is sourced with a slot while the slot is excited with a rectangular microstrip transmission line. The microstrip transmission line is designed for a 50 Ω impedance to provide maximum power to the slot. As a result, the… More
  •   Views:244       Downloads:227        Download PDF

  • Ultra-Wideband Annular Ring Fed Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Millimeter Wave 5G Applications
  • Abstract In this article an ultra-wideband rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna is designed for millimeter wave 5G frequency band applications. Indoor 5G communications require antenna system with wide bandwidth and high efficiency to enhance the throughput in the channel. To fulfill such requirements a Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) is designed here which has achieved an ultra-wide bandwidth of 20.15% (22.32–27.56 GHz) which is 5.24 GHz of bandwidth centered at 26 GHz as resonating frequency. This covers the complete band 30 (24.3–27.5 GHz) of 5G spectrum. 26 and 28 GHz are considered as most popular frequencies in millimeter wave 5G communications. The aperture… More
  •   Views:222       Downloads:221        Download PDF

  • Beamforming Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave 5G Wireless Networks
  • Abstract With the rapid growth in the number of mobile devices and user connectivity, the demand for higher system capacity and improved quality-of-service is required. As the demand for high-speed wireless communication grows, numerous modulation techniques in the frequency, temporal, and spatial domains, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), time division multiple access (TDMA), space division multiple access (SDMA), and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), are being developed. Along with those approaches, electromagnetic waves’ orbital angular momentum (OAM) is attracting attention because it has the potential to boost the wireless communication capacity. Antenna electromagnetic radiation can be described by a sum of… More
  •   Views:381       Downloads:283        Download PDF

  • Ultra-wideband Frequency Selective Surface for Communication Applications
  • Abstract A low-profile ultra-wideband (UWB) band-stop frequency selective surface (FSS) is designed for S-, C-, X- and Ku-bands communication applications. The FSS is constructed by using square and circular loop elements printed on the top and bottom sides of the RO3210 substrate. The FSS has been designed to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI) as well as to mitigate the harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation on the human body caused by different radio devices. The dimension and size of the UWB FSS have been reduced to 0.12 λ × 0.12 λ and 90%, respectively, as compared to the reported literature. The other… More
  •   Views:285       Downloads:231        Download PDF

  • A Compact Tri-Band Antenna Based on Inverted-L Stubs for Smart Devices
  • Abstract We designed and constructed a novel, compact tri-band monopole antenna for intelligent devices. Multiband behavior was achieved by placing inverted-L shaped stubs of various lengths in a triangular monopole antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide. The resonance frequency of each band can be controlled by varying the length of the corresponding stub. Three bands, at 2.4 (2.37–2.51), 3.5 (3.34–3.71), and 5.5 (4.6–6.4) GHz, were easily obtained using three stubs of different lengths. For miniaturization, a portion of the longest stub (at 2.4 GHz) was printed on the opposite side of the substrate, and connected to the main stub via a… More
  •   Views:326       Downloads:237        Download PDF

  • Reconfigurable Pattern Patch Antenna for Mid-Band 5G: A Review
  • Abstract New requirements in communication technologies make it imperative to rehash conventional features such as reconfigurable antennas to adapt with the future adaptability advancements. This paper presents a comprehensive review of reconfigurable antennas, specifically in terms of radiation patterns for adaptation in the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) New Radio frequency bands. They represent the key of antenna technology for materializing a high rate transmission, increased spectral and energy efficiency, reduced interference, and improved the beam steering and beam shaping, thereby land a great promise for planar antennas to boost the mid-band 5G. This review begins with an overview of the underlying… More
  •   Views:465       Downloads:409        Download PDF

  • High Gain of UWB Planar Antenna Utilising FSS Reflector for UWB Applications
  • Abstract In this paper, a high gain and directional coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed ultra-wideband (UWB) planar antenna with a new frequency selective surface (FSS) unit cells design is proposed for UWB applications. The proposed UWB antenna was designed based on the Mercedes artistic-shaped planar (MAP) antenna. The antenna consisted of a circular ring embedded with three straight legs for antenna impedance bandwidth improvement. The modelled FSS used the integration of a two parallel conductive metallic patch with a circular loop structure. The FSS provided a UWB stopband filter response covering a bandwidth of 10.5 GHz, for frequencies from 2.2 to 12.7 GHz.… More
  •   Views:421       Downloads:460        Download PDF

  • Helix Inspired 28 GHz Broadband Antenna with End-Fire Radiation Pattern
  • Abstract This paper presents the design and characterization of a via free planar single turn helix for 28 GHz broadband applications. The proposed antenna is designed using ROGERS RO4003 material, having a simple structure and end-fire radiation pattern. The antenna comprises of a compact dimension of 1.36 λ0 × 0.9 λ0 with a thickness of 0.0189 λ0 (where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the central frequency of 28 GHz). Parametric study has been carried out to investigate the impact of key design parameters and to achieve an optimum design. Results show a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.… More
  •   Views:444       Downloads:307        Download PDF

  • Ambiguity Resolution in Direction of Arrival Estimation with Linear Antenna Arrays Using Differential Geometry
  • Abstract Linear antenna arrays (LAs) can be used to accurately predict the direction of arrival (DOAs) of various targets of interest in a given area. However, under certain conditions, LA suffers from the problem of ambiguities among the angles of targets, which may result in misinterpretation of such targets. In order to cope up with such ambiguities, various techniques have been proposed. Unfortunately, none of them fully resolved such a problem because of rank deficiency and high computational cost. We aimed to resolve such a problem by proposing an algorithm using differential geometry. The proposed algorithm uses a specially designed doublet… More
  •   Views:414       Downloads:375        Download PDF

  • An AMC-Based Circularly Polarized Antenna for 5G sub-6 GHz Communications
  • Abstract This paper presents an AMC (artificial magnetic conductor)-based wideband circularly polarized printed monopole antenna for unidirectional radiation. The antenna includes an AMC reflector, a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed structure to excite the antenna, a ground plane with a rectangular slot on the left side of feedline, and an asymmetrical ground plane on its right side. The induced surface currents on CWP feedline, rectangularly slotted, and asymmetrical ground planes cause circularly polarized radiations. The AMC reflector consisting periodic metallic square patches is used instead of the conventional PEC (perfect electric conductor) reflector, the distance between the antenna and reflector is reduced… More
  •   Views:578       Downloads:387        Download PDF

  • Design of a Five-Band Dual-Port Rectenna for RF Energy Harvesting
  • Abstract This paper proposed the design of a dual-port rectifier with multi-frequency operations. The RF rectifier is achieved using a combination of L-section inductive impedance matching network (IMN) at Port-1 with a multiple stubs impedance transformer at Port-2. The fabricated prototype can harvest RF signal from GSM/900, GSM/1800, UMTS/2100, Wi-Fi/2.45 and LTE/2600 frequency bands at (0.94, 1.80, 2.10, 2.46, and 2.63 GHz), respectively. The rectifier occupies a small portion of a PCB board at 0.20 λg × 0.15 λg. The proposed circuit realized a measured peak RF-to-dc (radio frequency direct current) power conversion efficiency (PCE) of (21%, 22.76%, 25.33%, 21.57%, and… More
  •   Views:747       Downloads:957        Download PDF

  • Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Portable Wireless Applications
  • Abstract In this paper, the design and experimental evaluation of a hexagonal-shaped coplanar waveguide (CPW)-feed frequency reconfigurable antenna is presented using flame retardant (FR)-4 substrate with size of 37 × 35 × 1.6 mm3. The antenna is made tunable to three different modes through the status of two pin diodes to operate in four distinct frequency bands, i.e., 2.45 GHz wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) in MODE 1, 3.3 GHz (5G sub-6 GHz band) in MODE 2, 2.1 GHz (3G Long Term Evolution (LTE)-advanced) and 3.50 GHz Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) in MODE 3. The optimization through simulation modeling shows that… More
  •   Views:1015       Downloads:1163        Download PDF

  • Reconfigurable Compact Wideband Circularly Polarised Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Wireless Applications
  • Abstract In this work, a novel compact wideband reconfigurable circularly polarised (CP) dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The L-shaped Dielectric resonator antenna is excited by an inverted question mark shaped feed. This arrangement of feed-line helps to generate two orthogonal modes inside the DR, which makes the design circularly polarised. A thin micro-strip line placed on the defected ground plane not only helps to generate a wideband response but also assist in the positioning of the two diode switches. These switches located at the left and right of the micro-strip line helps in performing two switching operations. The novel compact… More
  •   Views:908       Downloads:747        Download PDF

  • Single-Layer Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna Using Non-Uniform Metasurface for C-band Applications
  • Abstract A single-layer design of non-uniform metasurface (MS) based circularly polarized (CP) antenna with wideband operation characteristic is proposed and investigated in this paper. The antenna is excited by a truncated corner squared patch as a primary radiating CP source. Then, a non-uniform MS is placed in the same layer with the driven patch. Besides increasing the impedance bandwidth, the non-uniform MS also generates two additional CP bands in the high frequency band, leading to significantly increase the antenna’s overall performances. The use of non-uniform MS distinguishes our design from the other CP MS based antennas in literature, in which the… More
  •   Views:953       Downloads:758        Download PDF

  • Resonator Rectenna Design Based on Metamaterials for Low-RF Energy Harvesting
  • Abstract In this paper, the design of a resonator rectenna, based on metamaterials and capable of harvesting radio-frequency energy at 2.45 GHz to power any low-power devices, is presented. The proposed design uses a simple and inexpensive circuit consisting of a microstrip patch antenna with a mushroom-like electromagnetic band gap (EBG), partially reflective surface (PRS) structure, rectifier circuit, voltage multiplier circuit, and 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi module. The mushroom-like EBG sheet was fabricated on an FR4 substrate surrounding the conventional patch antenna to suppress surface waves so as to enhance the antenna performance. Furthermore, the antenna performance was improved more by utilizing… More
  •   Views:1101       Downloads:861        Download PDF

  • A Compact Dual-Port Multi-Band Rectifier Circuit for RF Energy Harvesting
  • Abstract This paper presents a compact multi-band rectifier with an improved impedance matching bandwidth. It uses a combination of п–matching network (MN) at Port-1, with a parallel connection of three cell branch MN at Port-2. The proposed impedance matching network (IMN) is adopted to reduce circuit complexity, to improve circuit performance, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier at low input power. The fabricated rectifier prototype operates at 0.92, 1.82, 2.1, 2.46 and 2.65 GHz covering GSM/900, GSM/1800, UMTS2100, and Wi-Fi/2.45–LTE2600. The size of the compact rectifier on the PCB board is 0.13λg × 0.1λg. The fabricated rectifier achieved an… More
  •   Views:1036       Downloads:906        Download PDF