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Value-Added Utilization of Agro-Waste Derived Oil Palm Ash in Epoxy Composites

Samsul Rizal1, Fizree, H. M.2, Chaturbhuj K. Saurabh3, Deepu A. Gopakumar2, N. A. Sri Aprilia4, D. Hermawan5, A. Banerjee6, Fazita M. R. M2, Haafiz M. K. M.2, Abdul Khalil H. P. S.2,*

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
2 School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
3 Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India.
4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
5 Department of Forestry, Kampus IPB, Darmaga, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia.
6 Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Tilak College of Science and Commerce, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India.

* Corresponding Author: Abdul Khalil H. P. S. Email: email.

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2019, 7(12), 1269-1278.


Oil palm ash (OPA) is an agro-industry waste and it has disposable problems. In the present study, an effort was made for value addition to OPA by incorporating it as a micro-filler in different concentration (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) and sizes (100, 200, and 300 mesh size particles) in the epoxy matrix. Prepared micro OPA was having a crystallinity index of 65.4%, high inorganic elements, and smooth surface morphology. Fabricated composites had higher void content as compared to neat epoxy matrix. Mechanical properties of fabricated composites had a maximum value at 30% loading of 300 mesh-size filler due to its low void content and size as compared to filler of 100 and 200 mesh size. Further increase in the concentration of OPA filler after 30 wt% of loading leads to the agglomeration of OPA microparticles and thereby resulted in the reduction of mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites. However, elongation at break decreased with increase in filler content at all percentage. Thermal stability and char residue percentage of composite increased with the concentration of filler at all percentage. Surface morphology of composite showed that OPA incorporation lead towards its roughness and cracks were originated from the site of OPA embedded in the epoxy matrix. The 300 meshsize particles were having the best effect on composite as compared to 100 and 200 mesh-size filler.


Cite This Article

Rizal, S., M., F. H., Saurabh, C. K., Gopakumar, D. A., A., N. et al. (2019). Value-Added Utilization of Agro-Waste Derived Oil Palm Ash in Epoxy Composites. Journal of Renewable Materials, 7(12), 1269–1278.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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