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Effects of Selected Printing Parameters on the Fire Properties of 3D-Printed Neat Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Wood/PLA Composites

Nataša Knez1, Mirko Kariž2, Friderik Knez1, Nadir Ayrilmis3,*, Manja Kitek Kuzman2,*

1 Fire Laboratory and Fire Engineering, Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia
2 Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia
3 Department of Wood Mechanics and Technology, Forestry Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, 34473, Turkey

* Corresponding Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis. Email: ; Manja Kitek Kuzman. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polylactide Based Biopolymeric Systems)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2021, 9(11), 1883-1895.


The effects of selected printing parameters on the fire properties of additively produced composites from neat polylactic acid (PLA) and wood/PLA filaments were investigated. The reaction to fire of the 3D-printed specimens was tested according to the ISO 5660-1 cone calorimeter test method. The results showed that the properties of the specimens when exposed to fire were significantly affected by the incorporation of wood flour into the PLA filament. It was also interesting that PLA specimens had much better reactions to fire than the wood/PLA specimens. Time to ignition was found to be much longer in the 3D-printed PLA specimens. Although the maximal heat release rate was a little higher in the PLA than the wood/PLA specimens, the duration of HRR was longer for the wood/PLA specimens. The initial mass of the specimens was smaller in the wood/PLA composites, but during the radiant heat exposure the mass typically decreased slower than in the PLA specimens.


Cite This Article

Knez, N., Kariž, M., Knez, F., Ayrilmis, N., Kuzman, M. K. (2021). Effects of Selected Printing Parameters on the Fire Properties of 3D-Printed Neat Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Wood/PLA Composites. Journal of Renewable Materials, 9(11), 1883–1895.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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