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Optimization of Callus Induction Conditions from Immature Embryos of Maize under Stress

Xiaotong Wei1,#, Xuhong Fan2,#, Xuan Lu1, Liyuan Han1, Honglin Zhang3, Siyan Liu3, Jing Qu3, Shuyan Guan3,*, Yiyong Ma3,*

1 College of Life Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, 130118, China
2 Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, 130118, China
3 Joint Laboratory of International Cooperation in Modem Agricultural Technology of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, 130118, China

* Corresponding Authors: Shuyan Guan. Email: ; Yiyong Ma. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2022, 91(9), 1945-1957.


The embryos of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines GS02, GS07, GS08, GS11 and GS15 were used as receptor materials to optimize the receptor system from the aspects of genotype, medium components and stress (PEG6000, mannitol, salt and low phosphorus). The results showed that GS07 had the highest induction rate (95.2%). Orthogonal test analysis showed that the best combination of medium components in induction was A2B3C1D3(2), namely, the concentration of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) was 4 mg·mL-1, the concentration of L-Proline (L-Pro) was 0.8 mg·mL-1, and the concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was 10 mg·mL-1 (or 5 mg·mL). Interestingly, we found that the optimal medium supplemented with 30 g·L-1 PEG6000 or 80 g·L-1 mannitol was suitable for antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in GS07 callus. Exogenous 10 mmol·L-1 Ca2+ in the medium components with 100 mmol·L-1 sodium chloride (NaCl) could improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in GS07 callus. Callus of GS07 could divide normally and grow well in medium components with 27 mg·L-1 KH2PO4. This study enhanced the adaptability of maize callus to stress and optimized the culture conditions.


Cite This Article

Wei, X., Fan, X., Lu, X., Han, L., Zhang, H. et al. (2022). Optimization of Callus Induction Conditions from Immature Embryos of Maize under Stress. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 91(9), 1945–1957.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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