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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Detection of Student Engagement in E-Learning Environments Using EfficientnetV2-L Together with RNN-Based Models

    Farhad Mortezapour Shiri1,*, Ehsan Ahmadi2, Mohammadreza Rezaee1, Thinagaran Perumal1

    Journal on Artificial Intelligence, Vol.6, pp. 85-103, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jai.2024.048911

    Abstract Automatic detection of student engagement levels from videos, which is a spatio-temporal classification problem is crucial for enhancing the quality of online education. This paper addresses this challenge by proposing four novel hybrid end-to-end deep learning models designed for the automatic detection of student engagement levels in e-learning videos. The evaluation of these models utilizes the DAiSEE dataset, a public repository capturing student affective states in e-learning scenarios. The initial model integrates EfficientNetV2-L with Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and attains an accuracy of 61.45%. Subsequently, the second model combines EfficientNetV2-L with bidirectional GRU (Bi-GRU), yielding an accuracy of 61.56%. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Enhancing Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosis: A Multi-Level Classification Approach with Deep Learning

    Hasan J. Alyamani*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.140, No.1, pp. 1129-1142, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.047756

    Abstract The evaluation of disease severity through endoscopy is pivotal in managing patients with ulcerative colitis, a condition with significant clinical implications. However, endoscopic assessment is susceptible to inherent variations, both within and between observers, compromising the reliability of individual evaluations. This study addresses this challenge by harnessing deep learning to develop a robust model capable of discerning discrete levels of endoscopic disease severity. To initiate this endeavor, a multi-faceted approach is embarked upon. The dataset is meticulously preprocessed, enhancing the quality and discriminative features of the images through contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). A diverse array of data augmentation… More > Graphic Abstract

    Enhancing Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosis: A Multi-Level Classification Approach with Deep Learning

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    BSTFNet: An Encrypted Malicious Traffic Classification Method Integrating Global Semantic and Spatiotemporal Features

    Hong Huang1, Xingxing Zhang1,*, Ye Lu1, Ze Li1, Shaohua Zhou2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 3929-3951, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047918

    Abstract While encryption technology safeguards the security of network communications, malicious traffic also uses encryption protocols to obscure its malicious behavior. To address the issues of traditional machine learning methods relying on expert experience and the insufficient representation capabilities of existing deep learning methods for encrypted malicious traffic, we propose an encrypted malicious traffic classification method that integrates global semantic features with local spatiotemporal features, called BERT-based Spatio-Temporal Features Network (BSTFNet). At the packet-level granularity, the model captures the global semantic features of packets through the attention mechanism of the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model. At the byte-level granularity,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Systematic Literature Review of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Approaches for Spectral Image Classification in Agricultural Applications Using Aerial Photography

    Usman Khan1, Muhammad Khalid Khan1, Muhammad Ayub Latif1, Muhammad Naveed1,2,*, Muhammad Mansoor Alam2,3,4, Salman A. Khan1, Mazliham Mohd Su’ud2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 2967-3000, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.045101

    Abstract Recently, there has been a notable surge of interest in scientific research regarding spectral images. The potential of these images to revolutionize the digital photography industry, like aerial photography through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), has captured considerable attention. One encouraging aspect is their combination with machine learning and deep learning algorithms, which have demonstrated remarkable outcomes in image classification. As a result of this powerful amalgamation, the adoption of spectral images has experienced exponential growth across various domains, with agriculture being one of the prominent beneficiaries. This paper presents an extensive survey encompassing multispectral and hyperspectral images, focusing on their… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of a Multi-Stage Ensemble Model for Thyroid Prediction Using Learning Approaches

    M. L. Maruthi Prasad*, R. Santhosh

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.39, No.1, pp. 1-13, 2024, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.036628

    Abstract This research concentrates to model an efficient thyroid prediction approach, which is considered a baseline for significant problems faced by the women community. The major research problem is the lack of automated model to attain earlier prediction. Some existing model fails to give better prediction accuracy. Here, a novel clinical decision support system is framed to make the proper decision during a time of complexity. Multiple stages are followed in the proposed framework, which plays a substantial role in thyroid prediction. These steps include i) data acquisition, ii) outlier prediction, and iii) multi-stage weight-based ensemble learning process (MS-WEL). The weighted… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Classification and clustering of buildings for understanding urban dynamics

    A framework for processing spatiotemporal data

    Perez Joan1, Fusco Giovanni1, Sadahiro Yukio2

    Revue Internationale de Géomatique, Vol.31, No.2, pp. 303-327, 2022, DOI:10.3166/RIG.31.303-327© 2022

    Abstract This paper presents different methods implemented with the aim of studying urban dynamics at the building level. Building types are identified within a comprehensive vector-based building inventory, spanning over at least two time points. First, basic morphometric indicators are computed for each building: area, floor-area, number of neighbors, elongation, and convexity. Based on the availability of expert knowledge, different types of classification and clustering are performed: supervised tree-like classificatory model, expert-constrained k-means and combined SOM-HCA. A grid is superimposed on the test region of Osaka (Japan) and the number of building types per cell and for each period is computed,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    TEAM: Transformer Encoder Attention Module for Video Classification

    Hae Sung Park1, Yong Suk Choi2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 451-477, 2024, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.043245

    Abstract Much like humans focus solely on object movement to understand actions, directing a deep learning model’s attention to the core contexts within videos is crucial for improving video comprehension. In the recent study, Video Masked Auto-Encoder (VideoMAE) employs a pre-training approach with a high ratio of tube masking and reconstruction, effectively mitigating spatial bias due to temporal redundancy in full video frames. This steers the model’s focus toward detailed temporal contexts. However, as the VideoMAE still relies on full video frames during the action recognition stage, it may exhibit a progressive shift in attention towards spatial contexts, deteriorating its ability… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Artificial Intelligence-Based Framework for Fruits Disease Recognition Using Deep Learning

    Irfan Haider1, Muhammad Attique Khan1,*, Muhammad Nazir1, Taerang Kim2, Jae-Hyuk Cha2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 529-554, 2024, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.042080

    Abstract Fruit infections have an impact on both the yield and the quality of the crop. As a result, an automated recognition system for fruit leaf diseases is important. In artificial intelligence (AI) applications, especially in agriculture, deep learning shows promising disease detection and classification results. The recent AI-based techniques have a few challenges for fruit disease recognition, such as low-resolution images, small datasets for learning models, and irrelevant feature extraction. This work proposed a new fruit leaf leaf leaf disease recognition framework using deep learning features and improved pathfinder optimization. Three fruit types have been employed in this work for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    DeepSVDNet: A Deep Learning-Based Approach for Detecting and Classifying Vision-Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Images

    Anas Bilal1, Azhar Imran2, Talha Imtiaz Baig3,4, Xiaowen Liu1,*, Haixia Long1, Abdulkareem Alzahrani5, Muhammad Shafiq6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 511-528, 2024, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.039672

    Abstract Artificial Intelligence (AI) is being increasingly used for diagnosing Vision-Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy (VTDR), which is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. However, previous automated VTDR detection methods have mainly relied on manual feature extraction and classification, leading to errors. This paper proposes a novel VTDR detection and classification model that combines different models through majority voting. Our proposed methodology involves preprocessing, data augmentation, feature extraction, and classification stages. We use a hybrid convolutional neural network-singular value decomposition (CNN-SVD) model for feature extraction and selection and an improved SVM-RBF with a Decision Tree (DT) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Deep Learning-Based Model for Classification of Wheat Gene Expression

    Amr Ismail1, Walid Hamdy1,2, Aya M. Al-Zoghby3, Wael A. Awad3, Ahmed Ismail Ebada3, Yunyoung Nam4, Byeong-Gwon Kang4,*, Mohamed Abouhawwash5,6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 273-285, 2024, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.038192

    Abstract Deep learning (DL) plays a critical role in processing and converting data into knowledge and decisions. DL technologies have been applied in a variety of applications, including image, video, and genome sequence analysis. In deep learning the most widely utilized architecture is Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are taught discriminatory traits in a supervised environment. In comparison to other classic neural networks, CNN makes use of a limited number of artificial neurons, therefore it is ideal for the recognition and processing of wheat gene sequences. Wheat is an essential crop of cereals for people around the world. Wheat Genotypes identification has… More >

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