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  • Open Access


    Design of an Efficient and Provable Secure Key Exchange Protocol for HTTP Cookies

    Waseem Akram1, Khalid Mahmood2, Hafiz Burhan ul Haq3, Muhammad Asif3, Shehzad Ashraf Chaudhry4,5, Taeshik Shon6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.80, No.1, pp. 263-280, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.052405

    Abstract Cookies are considered a fundamental means of web application services for authenticating various Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests and maintains the states of clients’ information over the Internet. HTTP cookies are exploited to carry client patterns observed by a website. These client patterns facilitate the particular client’s future visit to the corresponding website. However, security and privacy are the primary concerns owing to the value of information over public channels and the storage of client information on the browser. Several protocols have been introduced that maintain HTTP cookies, but many of those fail to achieve More >

  • Open Access


    Enhancing Secure Development in Globally Distributed Software Product Lines: A Machine Learning-Powered Framework for Cyber-Resilient Ecosystems

    Marya Iqbal1, Yaser Hafeez1, Nabil Almashfi2, Amjad Alsirhani3, Faeiz Alserhani4, Sadia Ali1, Mamoona Humayun5,*, Muhammad Jamal6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.3, pp. 5031-5049, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.051371

    Abstract Embracing software product lines (SPLs) is pivotal in the dynamic landscape of contemporary software development. However, the flexibility and global distribution inherent in modern systems pose significant challenges to managing SPL variability, underscoring the critical importance of robust cybersecurity measures. This paper advocates for leveraging machine learning (ML) to address variability management issues and fortify the security of SPL. In the context of the broader special issue theme on innovative cybersecurity approaches, our proposed ML-based framework offers an interdisciplinary perspective, blending insights from computing, social sciences, and business. Specifically, it employs ML for demand analysis, More >

  • Open Access


    EG-STC: An Efficient Secure Two-Party Computation Scheme Based on Embedded GPU for Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Zhenjiang Dong1, Xin Ge1, Yuehua Huang1, Jiankuo Dong1, Jiang Xu2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.3, pp. 4021-4044, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049233

    Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive exploration into the integration of Internet of Things (IoT), big data analysis, cloud computing, and Artificial Intelligence (AI), which has led to an unprecedented era of connectivity. We delve into the emerging trend of machine learning on embedded devices, enabling tasks in resource-limited environments. However, the widespread adoption of machine learning raises significant privacy concerns, necessitating the development of privacy-preserving techniques. One such technique, secure multi-party computation (MPC), allows collaborative computations without exposing private inputs. Despite its potential, complex protocols and communication interactions hinder performance, especially on resource-constrained devices. Efforts… More >

  • Open Access


    Enabling Efficient Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks-Based IoT Applications

    Ibraheem Al-Hejri1, Farag Azzedin1,*, Sultan Almuhammadi1, Naeem Firdous Syed2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.3, pp. 4197-4218, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047117

    Abstract The use of the Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding at an unprecedented scale in many critical applications due to the ability to interconnect and utilize a plethora of wide range of devices. In critical infrastructure domains like oil and gas supply, intelligent transportation, power grids, and autonomous agriculture, it is essential to guarantee the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data collected and exchanged. However, the limited resources coupled with the heterogeneity of IoT devices make it inefficient or sometimes infeasible to achieve secure data transmission using traditional cryptographic techniques. Consequently, designing a lightweight secure More >

  • Open Access


    Novel Static Security and Stability Control of Power Systems Based on Artificial Emotional Lazy Q-Learning

    Tao Bao*, Xiyuan Ma, Zhuohuan Li, Duotong Yang, Pengyu Wang, Changcheng Zhou

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.6, pp. 1713-1737, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.046150

    Abstract The stability problem of power grids has become increasingly serious in recent years as the size of novel power systems increases. In order to improve and ensure the stable operation of the novel power system, this study proposes an artificial emotional lazy Q-learning method, which combines artificial emotion, lazy learning, and reinforcement learning for static security and stability analysis of power systems. Moreover, this study compares the analysis results of the proposed method with those of the small disturbance method for a stand-alone power system and verifies that the proposed lazy Q-learning method is able More >

  • Open Access


    Towards Blockchain-Based Secure BGP Routing, Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Qiong Yang1, Li Ma1,2,*, Shanshan Tu1, Sami Ullah3, Muhammad Waqas4,5, Hisham Alasmary6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2035-2062, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049970

    Abstract Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standard inter-domain routing protocol for the Internet that conveys network layer reachability information and establishes routes to different destinations. The BGP protocol exhibits security design defects, such as an unconditional trust mechanism and the default acceptance of BGP route announcements from peers by BGP neighboring nodes, easily triggering prefix hijacking, path forgery, route leakage, and other BGP security threats. Meanwhile, the traditional BGP security mechanism, relying on a public key infrastructure, faces issues like a single point of failure and a single point of trust. The decentralization, anti-tampering, and More >

  • Open Access


    Trusted Certified Auditor Using Cryptography for Secure Data Outsourcing and Privacy Preservation in Fog-Enabled VANETs

    Nagaraju Pacharla, K. Srinivasa Reddy*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 3089-3110, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048133

    Abstract With the recent technological developments, massive vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been established, enabling numerous vehicles and their respective Road Side Unit (RSU) components to communicate with one another. The best way to enhance traffic flow for vehicles and traffic management departments is to share the data they receive. There needs to be more protection for the VANET systems. An effective and safe method of outsourcing is suggested, which reduces computation costs by achieving data security using a homomorphic mapping based on the conjugate operation of matrices. This research proposes a VANET-based data outsourcing… More >

  • Open Access


    Chaotic Map-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol with Low-Latency for Metasystem

    Guojun Wang1,2, Qi Liu3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 4471-4488, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047669

    Abstract With the rapid advancement in exploring perceptual interactions and digital twins, metaverse technology has emerged to transcend the constraints of space-time and reality, facilitating remote AI-based collaboration. In this dynamic metasystem environment, frequent information exchanges necessitate robust security measures, with Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) serving as the primary line of defense to ensure communication security. However, traditional AKA protocols fall short in meeting the low-latency requirements essential for synchronous interactions within the metaverse. To address this challenge and enable nearly latency-free interactions, a novel low-latency AKA protocol based on chaotic maps is proposed. This… More >

  • Open Access


    Data Secure Storage Mechanism for IIoT Based on Blockchain

    Jin Wang1,2, Guoshu Huang1, R. Simon Sherratt3, Ding Huang4, Jia Ni4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 4029-4048, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047468

    Abstract With the development of Industry 4.0 and big data technology, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is hampered by inherent issues such as privacy, security, and fault tolerance, which pose certain challenges to the rapid development of IIoT. Blockchain technology has immutability, decentralization, and autonomy, which can greatly improve the inherent defects of the IIoT. In the traditional blockchain, data is stored in a Merkle tree. As data continues to grow, the scale of proofs used to validate it grows, threatening the efficiency, security, and reliability of blockchain-based IIoT. Accordingly, this paper first analyzes the… More >

  • Open Access


    Deep Learning-Based Secure Transmission Strategy with Sensor-Transmission-Computing Linkage for Power Internet of Things

    Bin Li*, Linghui Kong, Xiangyi Zhang, Bochuo Kou, Hui Yu, Bowen Liu

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 3267-3282, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047193

    Abstract The automatic collection of power grid situation information, along with real-time multimedia interaction between the front and back ends during the accident handling process, has generated a massive amount of power grid data. While wireless communication offers a convenient channel for grid terminal access and data transmission, it is important to note that the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. Additionally, the broadcast nature of wireless transmission raises concerns about the potential for unauthorized eavesdropping during data transmission. To address these challenges and achieve reliable, secure, and real-time transmission of power grid data, an intelligent… More >

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