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  • Open Access


    MALDI-ToF Analysis of Tannin-Resorcinol Resins by Alternative Aldehydes: Glyoxal and Glutaraldehyde

    A. Sauget1,*, X. Zhou1, A. Pizzi1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 186-200, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634138

    Abstract Glyoxal and glutaraldehyde are two viable alternatives to formaldehyde for the preparation of tanninresorcinol-aldehyde adhesive but lead to less resistant glue joint. Tannin-resorcinol-glyoxal (TRG1) and tannin-resorcinol-glutaraldehyde (TRG2) resins have been prepared and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of fl ight (MALDI-ToF) spectrometry to understand the chemical process behind the pre-curing of these resins and possibly the causes of this lower resistance. The analysis showed that TRG resins are not a simple mix of resorcinol-aldehydes oligomers and fl avonoids, but a much more complex combination of various species including tannin-aldehydes and tannin-resorcinol oligomers. More >

  • Open Access


    Formaldehyde-Free Prorobitenidin/Profi setinidin Tannin/ Furanic Foams Based on Alternative Aldehydes: Glyoxal and Glutaraldehyde

    X. Li1, A. Pizzi1,2,*, X. Zhou3,*, V. Fierro4, A. Celzard4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 142-150, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634117

    Abstract Tannin/furanic foams, typically 95% composed of materials of natural origin such as prorobinetinidin/ profi setinidin tannins and furfuryl alcohol, are potential alternatives to oil-based synthetic foams such as phenol-formaldehyde, and polyurethane foams. This article describes the development of second generation tannin/furanic foams, which are not only formaldehyde free, but also use nonvolatile, nontoxic aldehydes. Both glyoxal and glutaraldehyde were tried to substitute formaldehyde in tannin/furanic foams. The physical properties of these new foams are described and discussed. It was found that glutaraldehyde can totally substitute formaldehyde during tannin/furanic foam preparation, but that glyoxal cannot. The optimized proportion to prepare such… More >

  • Open Access


    Formaldehyde Free Renewable Thermosetting Foam Based on Biomass Tannin with a Lignin Additive

    Bowen Liu1, Yunxia Zhou1, Hisham Essawy2, Shang Feng1, Xuehui Li1, Jingjing Liao1, Xiaojian Zhou1,3,*, Jun Zhang1,*, Sida Xie1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 3009-3024, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019848

    Abstract This study presents easily prepared free formaldehyde bio-based foam based on a prepared thermosetting resin comprising tannin–lignin–furfuryl alcohol-glyoxal (TLFG) via mechanical stirring in presence of ether as a foaming agent. The foam was developed through a co-polycondensation reaction of glyoxal and furfuryl alcohol with condensed tannin and lignin, which is a forest-derived product. Investigation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed more closed-cell structure without cracks and collapse in the TLFG foam, with a higher apparent density with respect to tannin–furanic–formaldehyde (TFF) foam. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DTMA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) investigations revealed that the curing process… More >

  • Open Access


    Potassium-Induced Regulation of Cellular Antioxidant Defense and Improvement of Physiological Processes in Wheat under Water Deficit Condition

    Abdul Awal Chowdhury Masud1, Md. Fazlul Karim1, M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan2, Jubayer Al Mahmud3, Kamrun Nahar4, Masayuki Fujita5, Mirza Hasanuzzaman1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.2, pp. 353-372, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.013259

    Abstract Drought is the most common form of abiotic stress that reduces plant growth and productivity. It causes plant injuries through elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Potassium (K) is a vital plant nutrient that notably ameliorates the detrimental effect of drought stress in the plant. A pot experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Japan, under controlled environment of green house to explore the role of K in mitigating drought severity in wheat (Triticum asevitum L.) seedlings. Three days after germination, seedlings were exposed to three water regimes viz., 100, 50,… More >

  • Open Access


    Study on the Soy Protein-Based Adhesive Cross-Linked by Glyoxal

    Zhigang Wu1,2,#, Jiankun Liang3,#, Hong Lei1,*, Bengang Zhang1, Xuedong Xi1, Lifen Li2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 205-218, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013655

    Abstract Based on the ESI-MS and 13C-NMR analysis of the forms of glyoxal in acidic and alkaline solutions, the soy-based adhesive cross-linked by glyoxal was prepared in this work. The results showed that glyoxal existed in water in different forms at different pH levels. Under alkaline conditions, glyoxal transformed to glycolate through the intramolecular disproportionation reaction. Under acidic conditions, although some of glyoxal transformed to glycolate as what happened under alkaline conditions, most of glyoxal molecules existed in the form of five- or six-membered cyclic ether structure. No ethylene tetraol or free aldehyde group was actually detected under these conditions. Although… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation of an Abrasive Grinding Wheel Based on Tannin Resin CrossLinked by Furfuryl Alcohol, Urea and Glyoxal

    Jinxing Li1, Jun Zhang1,*, Yunxia Zhou1, Zhaoling Zhou1, Hisham Essawy2, Xiaojian Zhou1,*, Guanben Du1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1019-1032, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.012374

    Abstract Simple bio-based abrasive grinding wheel based on thermosetting resin matrix was developed starting with condensed tannin and furfuryl alcohol, which are mainly derived from forest and agricultural products like tree barks, wheat and crops. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) signified the acidic conditions are quiet efficient for the reaction of furfuryl alcohol, urea and glyoxal all together and the -CH2-NH- and -CH2-O-CH(OH)- groups are predominating in cross-linking of the tannin-furfuryl alcohol-urea-glyoxal (TFUG) resin. The strengthening contribution of the tannin was also confirmed by the preservation of its distinct crystallinity using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis… More >

  • Open Access


    Oxidative Stress Tolerance Mechanism in Rice under Salinity

    Mahmuda Binte Monsur1, Nasrin Akter Ivy1, M. Moynul Haque2, Mirza Hasanuzzaman3, Ayman EL Sabagh4,5,*, Md. Motiar Rohman6,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 497-517, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09144

    Abstract The research was conducted to investigate comparative oxidative damage including probable protective roles of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under salinity stress. Seedlings of two rice genotypes: Pokkali (tolerant) and BRRI dhan28 (sensitive) were subjected to 8 dSm−1 salinity stress for seven days in a hydroponic system. We observed significant variation between Pokkali and BRRI dhan28 in phenotypic, biochemical and molecular level under salinity stress. Carotenoid content, ion homeostasis, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione redox system and proline accumulation may help Pokkali to develop defense system during salinity stress. However, the activity antioxidant enzymes particularly… More >

  • Open Access


    Biomatrix from Stipa tenacissima L. and its Application in Fiberboard Using Date Palm Rachis as Filler

    Mohamed Ammar1, Ramzi Khiari2,3,4*, Mohamed Naceur Belgacem3,4*, Elimame Elaloui1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 116-123, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634136

    Abstract The present study investigated the preparation of biomatrices from Stipa tenacissima L. and its valorization for fiberboard application. Resins were produced by extracting lignin from the Stipa tenacissima L. black liquor by soda process and combining it with glyoxal as crosslinking agent to produce lignin-glyoxal-resin (LGR). The matrix was characterized by several methods, such as FTIR and ATG/ATD, and then mixed with date palm rachis as reinforcing fibers in different proportions of 30 and 50% (w/w with respect to the matrix) to produce biodegradable composite materials. Then, their thermal and mechanical properties were determined, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and… More >

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