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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Unweighted Voting Method to Detect Sinkhole Attack in RPL-Based Internet of Things Networks

    Shadi Al-Sarawi1, Mohammed Anbar1,*, Basim Ahmad Alabsi2, Mohammad Adnan Aladaileh3, Shaza Dawood Ahmed Rihan2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 491-515, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041108

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of interconnected smart devices communicating and collecting data. The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the standard protocol for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in the IoT. However, RPL is vulnerable to various attacks, including the sinkhole attack, which disrupts the network by manipulating routing information. This paper proposes the Unweighted Voting Method (UVM) for sinkhole node identification, utilizing three key behavioral indicators: DODAG Information Object (DIO) Transaction Frequency, Rank Harmony, and Power Consumption. These indicators have been carefully selected based on their contribution to sinkhole attack detection and other relevant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    LSTDA: Link Stability and Transmission Delay Aware Routing Mechanism for Flying Ad-Hoc Network (FANET)

    Farman Ali1, Khalid Zaman2, Babar Shah3, Tariq Hussain4, Habib Ullah5, Altaf Hussain5, Daehan Kwak6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 963-981, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.040628

    Abstract The paper presents a new protocol called Link Stability and Transmission Delay Aware (LSTDA) for Flying Ad-hoc Network (FANET) with a focus on network corridors (NC). FANET consists of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that face challenges in avoiding transmission loss and delay while ensuring stable communication. The proposed protocol introduces a novel link stability with network corridors priority node selection to check and ensure fair communication in the entire network. The protocol uses a Red-Black (R-B) tree to achieve maximum channel utilization and an advanced relay approach. The paper evaluates LSTDA in terms of End-to-End Delay (E2ED), Packet Delivery Ratio… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of Pre-Harvest Sprouting (PHS) Resistance and Screening of High-Quality Varieties from Thirty-Seven Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Resources in Chengdu Plain

    Xin Pan, Ya Gao, Fang Zeng, Chunmei Zheng, Wenxuan Ge, Yan Wan, Yanxia Sun, Xiaoyong Wu*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.10, pp. 2921-2936, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029853

    Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) will have a serious effect both on the yield and quality of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is crucial to select and breed quinoa varieties with PHS resistance and excellent agronomic traits for guidance production and utilization of quinoa. A comprehensive evaluation of the PHS resistance and agronomic traits of 37 species of quinoa resources was conducted in Chengdu Plain. The evaluation used various methods, including grain germination rate (GR), grain germination index (GI), total spike germination rate (SR), total grain germination index (SI), grey correlation analysis (GCA), cluster analysis and correlation analysis. Results showed significant differences… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Decision Analysis on IoV Routing Transmission and Energy Efficiency Optimization Algorithm with AmBC

    Baofeng Ji1,2,3,*, Mingkun Zhang1,2, Weixing Wang1, Song Chen4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.137, No.3, pp. 2661-2673, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.028762

    Abstract The improvement of the quality and efficiency of vehicle wireless network data transmission is always a key concern in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Routing transmission solved the limitation of transmission distance to a certain extent. Traditional routing algorithm cannot adapt to complex traffic environment, resulting in low transmission efficiency. In order to improve the transmission success rate and quality of vehicle network routing transmission, make the routing algorithm more suitable for complex traffic environment, and reduce transmission power consumption to improve energy efficiency, a comprehensive optimized routing transmission algorithm is proposed. Based on the routing transmission algorithm, an optimization… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Managing Smart Technologies with Software-Defined Networks for Routing and Security Challenges: A Survey

    Babangida Isyaku1,2, Kamalrulnizam Bin Abu Bakar2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 1839-1879, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.040456

    Abstract Smart environments offer various services, including smart cities, e-healthcare, transportation, and wearable devices, generating multiple traffic flows with different Quality of Service (QoS) demands. Achieving the desired QoS with security in this heterogeneous environment can be challenging due to traffic flows and device management, unoptimized routing with resource awareness, and security threats. Software Defined Networks (SDN) can help manage these devices through centralized SDN controllers and address these challenges. Various schemes have been proposed to integrate SDN with emerging technologies for better resource utilization and security. Software Defined Wireless Body Area Networks (SDWBAN) and Software Defined Internet of Things (SDIoT)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Packet Loss Rate on Multipath Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network

    Mohammed Abazeed*

    Journal on Internet of Things, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 227-233, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jiot.2022.039598

    Abstract Wireless multimedia sensor networks present unique quality of service and resource management requirements that distinguish them from scalar data in traditional wireless sensor networks. These demands pose a formidable obstacle to sensor nodes, which are resource-constrained and thus require distinct strategies and techniques to operate effectively. Multipath routing improves reliability while conserving the limited resources of sensor nodes. The source node selects the most optimal paths for delivering multimedia packets based on the multi-hop routes. This paper investigates the impact of packet loss on the observed frame rate in multipath routing protocols and evaluates it mathematically at the receiver node.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study on Ratio and Performance of Coal Gangue/Bottom Ash Geopolymer Double-Liquid Grouting Material

    Wenqi Zhao1, Wenbin Sun1,2,3,*, Zhenbo Cao1, Jianbang Hao1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.7, pp. 3073-3089, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026409

    Abstract Mine grouting reinforcement and water plugging projects often require large amounts of grouting materials. To reduce the carbon emission of grouting material production, improve the utilization of solid waste from mining enterprises, and meet the needs of mine reinforcement and seepage control, a double-liquid grouting material containing a high admixture of coal gangue powder/bottom ash geopolymer was studied. The setting time, fluidity, bleeding rate, and mechanical properties of grouting materials were studied through laboratory tests, and SEM analyzed the microstructure of the materials. The results show that the total mixture of calcined gangue does not exceed 60%. And the proportion… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    T_GRASP: Optimization Algorithm of Ship Avoiding Typhoon Route

    Yingxian Huang, Xueyan Ding, Yanan Zhang, Leiming Yan*

    Journal of Quantum Computing, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 85-95, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jqc.2022.031436

    Abstract A GRASP-based algorithm called T_GRASP for avoiding typhoon route optimization is suggested to increase the security and effectiveness of ship navigation. One of the worst natural calamities that can disrupt a ship’s navigation and result in numerous safety mishaps is a typhoon. Currently, the captains manually review the collected weather data and steer clear of typhoons using their navigational expertise. The distribution of heavy winds and waves produced by the typhoon also changes dynamically as a result of the surrounding large-scale air pressure distribution, which significantly enhances the challenge of the captain’s preparation for avoiding typhoon navigation. It is now… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Efficient Green Routing for UAVs Ad-Hoc Network

    M. Muthukumar1, Rajasekar Rangasamy2, Irshad Hussain3,4, Salman A. AlQahtani4,*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.1, pp. 1111-1127, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.034369

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to propose Stability-based Energy-Efficient Link-State Hybrid Routing (S-ELHR), a low latency routing protocol that aims to provide a stable mechanism for routing in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The S-ELHR protocol selects a number of network nodes to create a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) using a parameter known as the Stability Metric (SM). The SM considers the node’s energy usage, connectivity time, and node’s degree. Only the highest SM nodes are chosen to form CDS. Each node declares a Willingness to indicate that it is prepared to serve as a relay for its neighbors, by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intrusion Detection System Through Deep Learning in Routing MANET Networks

    Zainab Ali Abbood1,2,*, Doğu Çağdaş Atilla3,4, Çağatay Aydin5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.1, pp. 269-281, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.035276

    Abstract Deep learning (DL) is a subdivision of machine learning (ML) that employs numerous algorithms, each of which provides various explanations of the data it consumes; mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) are growing in prominence. For reasons including node mobility, due to MANET’s potential to provide small-cost solutions for real-world contact challenges, decentralized management, and restricted bandwidth, MANETs are more vulnerable to security threats. When protecting MANETs from attack, encryption and authentication schemes have their limits. However, deep learning (DL) approaches in intrusion detection systems (IDS) can adapt to the changing environment of MANETs and allow a system to make intrusion decisions… More >

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