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  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Microfluidic methods used in exosome isolation

    ADEM OZCELIK1,*, OZGE CEVIK2

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.5, pp. 959-964, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.028371

    Abstract Exosomes are important biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. It is critical to isolate secreted exosomes from bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, breast milk, and urine for liquid biopsy applications. The field of microfluidics provides numerous benefits for biosample processing, diagnostics, and prognostics. Several microfluidics-based methods have been employed for the isolation and purification of exosomes in the last ten years. These microfluidic methods can be grouped into two categories based on passive and active isolation mechanisms. In the first group, inertial and hydrodynamic forces are employed to separate exosomes based on their size differences. In More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Raloxifene-loaded and aptamer-bonded exosomes induce autophagic and apoptotic death in HeLa cells by enhancing the lysosomotropic effect

    OMER ERDOGAN1, GULEN MELIKE DEMIRBOLAT2, OZGE CEVIK1,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.5, pp. 1051-1063, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.028129

    Abstract Background: Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is also known to be a lysosomotropic agent. The bioavailability of raloxifene is around 2% due to extensive hepatic transport. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles that are naturally released from cells. Method: In this study, exosomes released from HeLa cervical cancer cells were loaded with raloxifene to increase its bioavailability, and an aptamer was attached to the exosome membrane for targeting only HeLa cells. Characterization of exosomes isolated from HeLa cells was performed by transmission electron microscopy, zeta sizer, and western blotting. In addition, the cytotoxic, apoptotic, autophagic, and lysosomotropic More >

  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Analysis of tumor-draining vein secretome: A direct access to tumor-derived extracellular vesicles in surgical lung cancer patients

    YANGYI HE1,2, DAVID SANCHEZ-LORENTE3,4,5, MELISSA ACOSTA-PLASENCIA1, MARC BOADA3,4,5, ANGELA GUIRAO3,4,5, RAMON M. MARRADES4,5,6,7, LAUREANO MOLINS3,4,5, ALFONS NAVARRO1,4,5,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.5, pp. 951-957, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.027718

    Abstract Tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate in the metastasis process through different mechanisms, including the preparation of the pre-metastatic niche to grant circulating tumor cells (CTCs) implantation and growth. The study of the metastasis process through the analysis of CTCs and tumor-derived EVs is difficult because of the dilution grade of these elements in peripheral blood. In early-stage lung cancer patients, the tumor-secreted products are even more diluted. An attractive strategy in surgical lung cancer patients is to purify them from a pulmonary tumor-draining vein where they are enriched. The information obtained from the analysis of More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The extracellular secretion of miR-1825 wrapped by exosomes increases CLEC5A expression: A potential oncogenic mechanism in ovarian cancer

    QIAOLING WU1,2, ZHAOLEI CUI3, HONGMEI XIA1, SHAN JIANG1, JING BAI4, ZHUO SHAO4, YANG SUN1,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.5, pp. 1039-1050, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.027494

    Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is a leading cause of gynecological cancer-linked deaths worldwide. Exosomal miR-1825 and its target gene C-type lectin domain family 5 member A (CLEC5A) are associated with tumorigenesis in cancers that was further probed. Methods: Exosomal miR-1825 expression in exosomes and its impact on overall survival (OS) prediction were determined using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Target genes of miR-1825 were searched in five prediction databases and prognostically significant differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were carried… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Immunoregulatory effects of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    XIN TIAN, XIANGLING HE*, SHUQIN QIAN, RUNYING ZOU, KEKE CHEN, CHENGGUANG ZHU, ZEXI YIN

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.5, pp. 1085-1093, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.027090

    Abstract Background: The immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes have been receiving increasing attention. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effects of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and their exosomes on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Methods: The hAMSCs used in the experiment were identified by light microscopy and flow cytometry, and the differentiation ability of the cells was determined by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining. The expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin (IL)-6 were detected by quantitative… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Macrophage-derived exosomal miR-342-3p promotes the progression of renal cell carcinoma through the NEDD4L/CEP55 axis

    JIAFU FENG1,2,#,*, BEI XU1,2,#, CHUNMEI DAI1,2,#, YAODONG WANG1,4, GANG XIE1,5, WENYU YANG1,2, BIN ZHANG1,2, XIAOHAN LI6, JUN WANG3

    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.5, pp. 331-349, 2021, DOI:10.32604/or.2022.03554

    Abstract Due to its difficulty in early diagnosis and lack of sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be a frequent cause of cancer-related death. Here, we probed into new targets for its early diagnosis and treatment for RCC. microRNA (miRNA) data of M2-EVs and RCC were searched on the Gene Expression Omnibus database, followed by the prediction of the potential downstream target. Expression of target genes was measured via RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. M2 macrophage was obtained via flow cytometry with M2-EVs extracted. The binding ability of miR-342-3p to NEDD4L… More >

  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Exosomes from adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells: A key to future regenerative medicine

    JÉRÔME LALOZE1,2, ALEXIS DESMOULIÈRE1,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.12, pp. 2701-2704, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.022229

    Abstract Advances in regenerative medicine correlate strongly with progress in the use of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. The range of therapeutic indications has also expanded over recent years. Numerous recent studies have highlighted the primary importance of paracrine secretion by these cells. Though it is interesting to compare the different types of such secretions, we believe that exosomes (extra-cellular vesicles possessing the same properties as their source cells) will likely be the main key in tomorrow’s cell therapy. Exosomes also have many advantages compared to the direct use of cells, making these particles a major More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exosomal miR-218 regulates the development of endometritis in dairy cows by targeting TGIF2/TGF-β pathway

    CHANG CHEN1,#, LIMIN QIAO2,#, KAIJUN GUO1, YINGQIU WANG1, MENGYI YUAN3, BOFAN FU4, XIAOBO GAO3, HEMIN NI1, LONGFEI XIAO1,*, XIANGGUO WANG1,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.11, pp. 2415-2423, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.021510

    Abstract Endometritis affects the reproductive capacity of dairy cows and leads to serious economic losses in dairy farming. Clarification of the pathogenesis of endometritis is necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. Exosomes and their miRNAs have been proven to play an important role in inflammatory regulation. Exosomal miR-218 is a differentially expressed miRNA found in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) under endometrial inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the expression of miR-218 in the uterine tissue of dairy cows, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated EECs, exosomal vesicles, and regulation of exosomal miR-218 by targeting TGIF-2 inducible factor homology… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Progression of Exosome-Mediated Chemotherapy Resistance in Cancer

    Haojie Zhang1, Xiaohong Wang2,*, Yue Yu2, Zhenlin Yang3,*

    Oncologie, Vol.24, No.2, pp. 247-259, 2022, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.020993

    Abstract Chemotherapy plays an important role in controlling cancer progression, but the long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents can lead to drug resistance and eventually treatment failure. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of drug resistance is the key to solve the problem of chemotherapy resistance. In recent years, exosomes derived from tumor cells have received extensive attention from researchers. In this paper, we reviewed the role and mechanism of exosome-mediated tumor drug resistance in recent years, summarized the related studies of exosome and chemotherapy drug resistance, and focused on several different ways by which exosomes participate in More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exosomal miR-1228 From Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promotes Cell Migration and Invasion of Osteosarcoma by Directly Targeting SCAI

    Jian-Wei Wang, Xiao-Feng Wu, Xiao-Juan Gu, Xing-Hua Jiang

    Oncology Research, Vol.27, No.9, pp. 979-986, 2019, DOI:10.3727/096504018X15336368805108

    Abstract Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a predominant role in regulating tumor progression. Understanding how CAFs communicate with osteosarcoma is crucial for developing novel approaches for osteosarcoma therapy. Exosomes are able to transmit messages between cells. In this study, we demonstrated that CAFs transfer exosomes to osteosarcoma cells, which promotes osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Using a miRNA microarray analysis, we identified 13 miRNAs that are significantly increased in exosomes derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and corresponding paracancer fibroblasts (PAFs). In vitro studies further validated that the levels of microRNA-1228 (miR-1228) were increased in CAFs, its secreted More >

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