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  • Open Access


    A Comparative Investigation of the Biodegradation Behaviour of Linseed Oil-Based Cross-Linked Composites Filled with Industrial Waste Materials in Two Different Soils

    Eglė Malachovskienė1,*, Danguolė Bridžiuvienė1, Jolita Ostrauskaitė2, Justina Vaičekauskaitė2, Gailė Žalūdienė3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1255-1269, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023574

    Abstract The biodegradation of polymeric biocomposites formed from epoxidized linseed oil and various types of fillers (pine needles, pine bark, grain mill waste, rapeseed cake) and a control sample without filler was studied during 180 days of exposure to two types of forest soil: deciduous and coniferous. The weight loss, morphological, and structural changes of polymer composites were noticed after 180 days of the soil burial test. The greatest weight loss of all tested samples was observed in coniferous forest soil (41.8%–63.2%), while in deciduous forest soil, it ranged between 37.7% and 42.3%. The most significant changes in the intensities of… More >

  • Open Access


    Biodegradability and Compostability of Lignocellulosic Based Composite Materials

    Sudhakar Muniyasamy1, Andrew Anstey2, Murali M. Reddy1, Manju Misra1,2, Amar Mohanty1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 253-272, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634117

    Abstract Lignocellulosic composites have attracted interest from both academia and industry due to their benefi cial environmental and sustainability attributes. The lignocellulosic industry has seen remarkable improvements in the development of composites for high performance applications. Both biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable polymers are used in the design and engineering of lignocellulosic composites. Biodegradability studies of lignocellulosic composites in soil and composting environments help in planning their end-life management. Biodegradability tests are complex and dependent on the environment in which the testing is carried out. Due to this, standards have been developed by international agencies such as the American Society for… More >

  • Open Access


    Cellulose Acetate Blends – Effect of Plasticizers on Properties and Biodegradability

    Vu Thanh Phuong1,2, Steven Verstichel3, Patrizia Cinelli1,4, Irene Anguillesi1, Maria-Beatrice Coltelli1, Andrea Lazzeri1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 35-41, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634136

    Abstract Cellulose acetate (CDA) cannot be processed as raw material because it starts to decompose before melting. Triacetin and diacetin were tested to improve CDA processing versus conventional phthalate as environmentally sustainable plasticizers, because of their low toxicity and fast biodegradability. The addition of triacetin and diacetin allowed melt processing of CDA and the results of tensile tests outlined their effect as plasticizers. The values of mechanical properties were compatible with the requirements for applications in rigid packaging. From the results of biodegradation tests it can be concluded that for pure cellulose acetate, complete biodegradation was obtained within 200 days of… More >

  • Open Access


    Chemically Modified Lignin: Correlation between Structure and Biodegradability

    Meifeng Wang1,2, Wubliker Dessie2, Hui Li1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.12, pp. 2119-2128, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016811

    Abstract Lignin is the most abundant heteropolymer based on aromatic subunits in nature. Large quantities of lignin are annually produced from pulping processes and biorefinery industries. Its unclearly defined structure and difficult biodegradation mainly limit its utilization. This work focused on the effect of hydroxylation of lignin on its microbial degradation. Butyloxy carbonyl-modified lignin, and hydroxylated-lignin were synthesized with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, using lignin as raw material. The degradation of the modifiedlignins both by P. chrysosporium and B. subtilis were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy. Results revealed that the lignin degradation velocity raises with the increase hydroxylation level of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Chemically Modified Lignin: Correlation between Structure and Biodegradability

  • Open Access


    Biodegradable Behavior of Waste Wool and Their Recycled Polyester Preforms in Aqueous and Soil Conditions

    Sudhakar Muniyasamy1,2,*, Asis Patnaik3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.10, pp. 1661-1671, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014904

    Abstract Present study deals with the biodegradable behavior of individual components and their preforms of nonwoven biocomposites developed from waste wool fibers including coring wool (CW), dorper wool (DW) and recycled polyester fibers (RPET). A respirometric technique was employed to estimate the production of CO2 during the biodegradation experiments under soil and aqueous media conditions. Functional groups of test samples before and after biodegradation were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Leaching chemicals such as formaldehyde (hydrolyzed) and Chromium VI (Cr VI) was also measured. The CO2 emission in wool fibers CW and DW indicated 90% and 60% biodegradation in… More >

  • Open Access


    Biodegradable Materials as Nanocarriers for Drugs and Nutrients

    Xingran Kou1,2, Qixuan Zhao2, Wenwen Xu2, Zuobing Xiao2, Yunwei Niu2, Kai Wang3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.7, pp. 1189-1211, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015268

    Abstract Several important drugs and nutritional supplements are limited by their lack of bioavailability. Nanomaterials display unique beneficial properties that might help improve the bioavailability of drugs and nutritional supplements. Unfortunately, nanomaterials produced from synthetic polymers and metals may have similar difficulties with bioavailability and toxicity. Naturally occurring biopolymers are biodegradable and non-toxic and are adaptable to the synthesis of nanoparticles. Drugs and other substances can be encapsulated or embedded in such particles with an increase in bioavailability. The search for biodegradable nanomaterials is an active research field. This review summarizes the research on nanocrystalline cellulose, starch, lignin, and other biological… More >

  • Open Access


    Novel Mycelium-Based Biocomposites (MBB) as Building Materials

    Zinta Zimele1,*, Ilze Irbe2, Juris Grinins2, Oskars Bikovens2, Anrijs Verovkins2, Diana Bajare1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1067-1076, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09646

    Abstract Novel mycelium-based biocomposites (MBB) were obtained from local agricultural (hemp shives) and forestry (wood chips) by-products which were bounded together with natural growth of fungal mycelium. As a result, hemp mycocomposites (HMC) and wood mycocomposites (WMC) were manufactured. Mechanical, water absorption and biodegradation properties of MBB were investigated. MBB were characterized also by ash content and elemental composition. The results of MBB were compared with the reference materials such as the commercial MBB material manufactured by Ecovative® Design (EV), hemp magnesium oxychloride concrete (HC) and cemented wood wool panel (CW), manufactured by CEWOOD®. The mechanical properties of HMC and WMC… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of Biodegradation in Aqueous Medium of Poly(Hydroxybutyrate-Co-Hydroxyvalerate)/Carbon Nanotubes Films in Respirometric System

    Larissa Stieven Montagna, Isabela CÉSAR Oyama, Rita de CÁSSIA Barbosa Camargo Lamparelli, Ana Paula Silva, THAÍS Larissa do Amaral Montanheiro, Ana Paula Lemes*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 117-128, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00036

    Abstract Biodegradable polymers have been increasingly used for scientific and commercial applications because they are similar to some conventional thermoplastics and exhibit the ability of self-degradation. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposites films with 1 and 2 wt% of carbon nanotubes (CNT) were prepared by solution mixing, followed by solvent evaporation. In this work, PHBV/CNT nanocomposites were submitted to biodegradation in an aqueous medium for 34 days through a respirometric system. Then, the PHBV films were analyzed by the CO2 production and mineralization as a response of a microbial attack, which was monitored by back titration during all the experiment. The films were also… More >

  • Open Access


    The Mechanical and Crystallographic Evolution of Stipatenacissima Leaves During In-Soil Biodegradation

    Zakia Khelifi1,2, Mohammed Amine Allal2, Nabil Abou-bekr2, Saïd Taïbi1, Benoît Duchemin1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 336-346, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634102

    Abstract The in-soil biodegradation of Stipa tenacissima (alfa) leaves was examined. Non-linear mechanical testing was performed at various biodegradation stages. Tensile strength, loading and unloading Young's moduli and dissipation energy decreased with the burial time, whereas plasticity increased. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the fracture cracks propagated in the longitudinal direction in the raw material, resulting in a fracture mode consisting of a mixture of middle lamella delamination and fiber pull-out. In contrast, the cracks were perpendicular to the stem axis in the biodegraded material, demonstrating an important strength loss of the load-bearing fibers. This strength loss was correlated… More >

  • Open Access


    Mineralization of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and PLA/PHBV Blend in Compost and Soil Environments

    Sudhakar Muniyasamy1,2, Osei Ofosu1,2, Maya Jacob John1,2, Rajesh D. Anandjiwala1,2*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 133-145, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634104

    Abstract The present study investigates the mineralization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-covalerate) (PHBV), and PLA/PHBV blend in compost and soil burial environments. The mineralization was assayed on the basis of carbon dioxide (CO2) release from the test materials incubated in compost and soil for a period of 200 days. The degradation was followed by means of fragmentation, thermogravimetric (TGA), FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The results showed that PLA, PHBV and blend of PLA/PHBV achieved almost 90% biodegradation under composting conditions, while PHBV, PLA/PHBV blend and PLA respectively achieved only 35%, 32% and 4% biodegradation under soil… More >

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