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  • Open Access

    Pretreatment of Wheat Bran for Suitable Reinforcement in Biocomposites

    Atikur Rahman1,3, Chad A. Ulven2, Maren A. Johnson1, Cheyenne Durant1, Khwaja G. Hossain*,1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 62-73, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634133

    Abstract Wheat bran, abundant but underutilized, was investigated for its potential as a reinforcement in biocomposites through different pretreatment methods. Pretreatment methods included were dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH), dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4), liquid hot water (LHW), calcium hydroxide (CaOH), organosolv such as aqueous ethanol (EtOH), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Changes in chemical composition and fiber characteristics of the treated bran were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cellulose content increased to 35.1% and 29.6% in brans treated with H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. The SEM micrographs showed surface cleaning of treated bran while maintaining sufficient… More >

  • Open Access


    Agmatine pretreatment protects retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) from oxidative stress in vitro


    BIOCELL, Vol.32, No.3, pp. 245-250, 2008, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2008.32.245

    Abstract Agmatine, 2-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against various neuronal damages. In this study it was investigated whether agmatine pretreatment rescues the retinal ganglion cells from oxidative injury in vitro. After differentiation of transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) with staurosporine, agmatine (0.0 to 100.0 μM) pretreatment was performed for 2 hours. Subsequently, they were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.0 to 2.5 mM) as an oxidative stress. Cell viability was monitored for up to 48 hours with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick… More >

  • Open Access


    Comparison of Dilute Organic Acid Pretreatment and a Comprehensive Exploration of Citric Acid Pretreatment on Corn Cob

    Hui Qiao1, Jingzhao Cui1, Shuiping Ouyang1, Jinjie Shi2, Jia Ouyang1,3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.11, pp. 1197-1207, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07735

    Abstract As an important agricultural waste, corn cob is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass. In this work, dilute acid pretreatment using seven different organic acids were compared for compositional analysis of corn cob. The first pKa of organic acids, influenced by the number and type of the side group and distance between two carboxylic groups, played a crucial role in the pretreatment effect. Citric acid was found to have better pretreatment performance than other tested dicarboxylic acids. Under the condition of 30 mM, 160°C and 60 min, the level of xylose reached 22.64 g/L in pretreatment liquid, and the… More >

  • Open Access


    Lactic Acid Fermentation from Coffee Ground Waste Hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Ja-Ryong Koo1, Hye Min Park1, Se Kyung Kim2, Hyun Shik Yun1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 365-372, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.04170

    Abstract Lactic acid is an important organic acid that is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Lactic acid was produced from coffee ground waste which contains fermentable sugars and is increasingly generated from our daily dietary life. Among 114 strains of Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863 was selected for the production of lactic acid from coffee ground waste. Through alkali pretreatment and saccharification, cellulose and hemicellulose in coffee ground waste were converted into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment experiments were conducted at various alkali solution, concentrations, and times. Alkali pretreatment with 35 g/L of KOH at 121oC for 60… More >

  • Open Access


    Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse Using an Enzymatic Extract Produced by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Kênia F. R. Lamounier1, Patrisia O. Rodrigues1, Daniel Pasquini2*, Milla A. Baffi1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 169-175, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634151

    Abstract This study investigates the efficiency of a crude enzymatic extract produced by Aspergillus fumigatus SCBM6 by solid state fermentation (SSF) in the hydrolysis of alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PTB). After SSF using in natura sugarcane bagasse (SCB), the enzymatic extract presented 21.33 U.g–1 of β-glucosidase and 544.46 U.g–1of xylanase. The alkaline pretreatment with sodium hydroxide (2% NaOH (w/v) removed 43% of the lignin from PTB and the cellulosic fraction increased to 75%. The hydrolysis was optimized as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of PTB. After hydrolysis, the maximum yield (30.05%) of total released reducing sugars (TRS) was obtained… More >

  • Open Access


    Nanostructural Evolution of Sugarcane Rind and Pith Submitted to Hydrothermal Pretreatments

    Marcelo M. Oliveira1,2, Antônio A. S. Curvelo2,3, Carlos Driemeier1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 152-159, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.6341576

    Abstract Lignocellulose conversion into cellulosic ethanol and coproducts starts with a pretreatment step. Most current industrial plants of cellulosic ethanol use thermochemical pretreatments under hydrothermal conditions, with or without addition of acid catalyst. Such pretreatments modify biomass chemistry and morphology, particularly at the nanoscale. In this work, we use X-ray diffraction, dynamic vapor sorption and calorimetric thermoporometry to investigate the biomass nanostructural changes promoted by hydrothermal conditions. We compare and differentiate the rind and pith fractions of sugarcane stalks in order to contribute to the understanding of rind-pith contrasting recalcitrance. Moreover, for both cane fractions our results point consistently to cellulose… More >

  • Open Access


    Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper

    S.H. Hassan1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1*, T.S. Velayutham2*, Lindong Zhai3, Hyun Chan Kim3, Jaehwan Kim3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634173

    Abstract Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application… More >

  • Open Access


    Biodegradation Pretreatment of Wood of E. grandis, E. dunnii, and E. benthamii to Work in Biorefi nery Processes

    Mary Isabel Lopretti1,2*, Natalia Irene Baldyga3, Maria Gonzalez1, Laura Beatriz Olazabal3, Marina Graciela Torres3, Fernando Resquin4, Leonidas Carrasco4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 66-71, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634133

    Abstract Nowadays, there is a great interest in using lignocellulosic materials as substrate for the production of biorefi nery products. Eucalypti are good options to use as crops to obtain different kinds of biofuels and derivatives, since their plantations show high adaptation potential to soil and weather conditions in Uruguay. The basic process steps involved in the obtainment of biorefi nery materials are: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and products separation. As delignifi cation is an important process to obtain biorefi nery products, in this context the evaluation of the biological (BT) and hydrothermal (TT) pretreatment of different species of Eucaliptus was studied.… More >

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