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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Shear Strength and Morphological Study of Polyurethane-OMMT Clay Nanocomposite Adhesive Derived from Vegetable Oil-Based Constituents

    Swarnalata Sahoo1,2*, Hemjyoti Kalita1, Smita Mohanty1,2, Sanjay Kumar Nayak1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 117-125, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634155

    Abstract In the current work, we have synthesized vegetable oil-based polyurethane-OMMT clay nanocomposite (PUNC) adhesive with the incorporation of different wt% of organically modified nanoclay (1 to 5 wt%) into the biobased polyurethane (PU) matrix through in-situ polymerization process via ultrasonication method. At the initial stage, PU adhesive was prepared using polyol and partially biobased aliphatic isocyanate, wherein polyol was derived from the transesterified castor oil using ethylene glycol. The formation of PU and PUNC adhesive was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength of PU with different wt% of nanoclay was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Karanja Oil Polyol and Rigid Polyurethane Biofoams for Thermal Insulation

    M. Himabindu1, K. Kamalakar2, MSL Karuna2, Aruna Palanisamy1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 124-131, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634137

    Abstract Rigid polyurethane biofoams were prepared from karanja polyol which was derived by ring-opening reaction of epoxidized karanja oil. The polyol, which had a hydroxyl value of 186 mg KOH/g, was thoroughly characterized and the structure confirmed by spectral techniques. The foam formulations were developed to achieve shrinkage-free foams with water used as the blowing agent. The resulting foams were characterized for their mechanical properties like density, compression strength and flexural strength. The densities and mechanical properties, such as compression and flexural strength, varied with the amount of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) for a fixed amount More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Concrete-Filled Lattice Rectangular Steel Tube Columns

    Chengquan Wang1, Yun Zou1,*, Tianqi Li1, Jie Ding1, Xiaoping Feng1, Tiange Lei1

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.12, No.2, pp. 99-110, 2018, DOI:10.3970/sdhm.2018.02061

    Abstract A kind of concrete-filled lattice rectangular steel tube (CFLRST) column was put forward. The numerical simulation was modeled to analyze the mechanical characteristic of CFLRST column. By comparing the load-deformation curves from the test results, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model has been confirmed, moreover, the change of the section stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the column were analyzed. Based on the model, the comparison of ultimate bearing capacity and ductility between CFLRST column and reinforced concrete (RC) column were also analyzed. The results More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling of Muscle Force at Varied Joint Angles of the Human Arm and Estimation of Gripping Force Using Surface EMG

    Tushar Kulkarni1, Dr. Rashmi Uddanwadiker2

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 87-104, 2016, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2016.013.099

    Abstract This paper aims to determine the force required for holding the objects by human hand. A static analysis is performed on mathematical models to obtain holding force considering lower arm as class three lever and by varying the joint angles. Three mathematical models are discussed to quantify the force required to hold any object, for different weight of the object and the joint angles. A noninvasive experimentation using surface electromyogram was performed to determine the forces required by human hand for the same objects used in the mathematical modeling. Twenty-one male subjects participated in this… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Substrate Modulation of Osteoblast Adhesion Strength, Focal Adhesion Kinase Activation, and Responsiveness to Mechanical Stimuli

    E. Takai1, R. Landesberg2, R.W. Katz2, C.T. Hung3, X.E Guo1,4

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 1-12, 2006, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2006.003.001

    Abstract Osteoblast interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are known to influence many cell functions, which may ultimately affect osseointegration of implants with the host bone tissue. Some adhesion-mediated events include activation of focal adhesion kinase, and subsequent changes in the cytoskeleton and cell morphology, which may lead to changes in adhesion strength and cell responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. In this study we examined focal adhesion kinase activation (FAK), F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization, adhesion strength, and osteoblast responsiveness to fluid shear when adhered to type I collagen (ColI), glass, poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (FN), vitronectin (VN), and serum… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction of the behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with FRP Plates

    Ricardo Perera1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 153-172, 2004, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2004.001.153

    Abstract Epoxy-bonding a composite plate to the tension face is an effective technique to repair reinforced concrete beams since it increases their strength and rigidity. In this paper, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates is studied numerically. For it, a numerical damage model is used in order to predict their strength, stiffness and failure modes observed in experimental tests taking into account the influence of different variables such as the amount of steel reinforcement, the type and amount of external reinforcement, the plate length, etc. The consideration of concrete More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling the Response of 3D Textile Composites under Compressive Loads to Predict Compressive Strength

    M. Pankow1, A.M. Waas2, C.F. Yen3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.32, No.2, pp. 81-106, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2012.032.081

    Abstract The compression response of 3D woven textile composites (3DWC) that consist of glass fiber tows and a polymer matrix material is studied using a combination of experiments and finite element based analyses. A previous study reported by the authors consisted of an experimental investigation of 3DWC under high strain rate loading, Pankow, Salvi, Waas, Yen, and Ghiorse (2011). Those experimental results were explained by using the finite element method to analyze the high rate deformation response of representative volume elements (RVEs) of the 3DWC, Pankow, Waas, Yen, and Ghiorse (2012). In this paper, the same More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of Fracture Parameters by Double-G, Double-K Models and Crack Extension Resistance for High Strength and Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

    A. Ramachandra Murthy1, Nagesh R. Iyer1, B.K. Raghu Prasad2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 229-252, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2012.031.229

    Abstract This paper presents the advanced analytical methodologies such as Double- G and Double - K models for fracture analysis of concrete specimens made up of high strength concrete (HSC, HSC1) and ultra high strength concrete. Brief details about characterization and experimentation of HSC, HSC1 and UHSC have been provided. Double-G model is based on energy concept and couples the Griffith's brittle fracture theory with the bridging softening property of concrete. The double-K fracture model is based on stress intensity factor approach. Various fracture parameters such as cohesive fracture toughness (KIcc), unstable fracture toughness (KIcun) and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fracture Analysis of High strength and Ultra high strength Concrete beams by using Finite Element Method

    A. Ramachandra Murthy1, Nagesh R. Iyer1, B.K. Raghu Prasad2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.30, No.2, pp. 177-194, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2012.030.177

    Abstract This paper presents the details of nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of three point bending specimens made up of high strength concrete (HSC, HSC1) and ultra high strength concrete (UHSC). Brief details about characterization and experimentation of HSC, HSC1 and UHSC have been provided. Cracking strength criterion has been used for simulation of crack propagation by conducting nonlinear FEA. The description about FEA using crack strength criterion has been outlined. Bi-linear tension softening relation has been used for modeling the cohesive stresses ahead of the crack tip. Numerical studies have been carried out on fracture More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    FEM Modeling of the Interface Strength and Its Effect on the Deformation Behaviour of Aluminum Cenosphere Syntactic Foam

    Raghvendra Khedle1, D.P.Mondal2, S.N.Verma1, Sanjay Panthi2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.27, No.3, pp. 211-230, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2011.027.211

    Abstract The interface in aluminum cenosphere syntactic foam (ACSF) is modeled using FEM to study its deformation behaviour as a function of interface characteristics such as interface stiffness and thickness. The interface is modeled as a thin layer of object. The effective modulus and stress of ACSF examined when it contain 50% cenosphere by volume. In this study, the shell wall thickness of cenosphere is fixed at 1µm. The width of the interface varies from 0.2% to 0.6% of cenosphere volume fraction. The interface strength and modulus varies in the range of 10 to 50% of the More >

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