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  • Open Access


    Flexible Biofoams Based on Furanics and Fatty Acids Esterified Tannin

    Elham Azadeh1, Ummi Hani Abdullah2,3, Christine Gerardin1,*, Antonio Pizzi1,*, Philippe Gerardin1, Cesar Segovia4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.10, pp. 3625-3645, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.030373

    Abstract Water repellant, flexible biofoams using tannin esterified with various fatty acid chains, namely lauric, palmitic and oleic acids, by reaction with lauryl chloride, palmitoyl chloride, and oleyl chloride were developed and their characteristics compared with the equivalently esterified rigid biofoams. Glycerol, while initially added to control the reaction temperature, was used as a plasticizer yielding flexible biofoams presenting the same water repellant character that the equivalent rigid foams. Acetaldehyde was used as the cross-linking agent instead of formaldehyde, as it showed a better performance with the esterified tannin. The compression results showed a significant decrease of the Modulus of Elasticity… More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Resins with Ozonized Sunfl ower Oil and Radiata Pine Tannins

    M.Thébault*, A.Pizzi, E.Fredon

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 242-252, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634121

    Abstract Sunfl ower oil was subjected to a fl ow of compressed air containing ozone for different time periods. The addition of α-D-Glucose was used to increase the aldehyde content by reduction of the intermediate ozonides of the ozonation reaction. These new oils were analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS spectrometry, and their relative aldehyde groups content measured by the Henick method. They were then mixed with an aqueous solution of Radiata Pine tannin to form resins, subsequently analyzed by 13C NMR and MALDITOF mass spectrometry. Wood particleboards were then made using some of these resins as the adhesive, and their internal… More >

  • Open Access


    Development and Characterisation of Phenolic Foams with Phenol-Formaldehyde-Chestnut Tannins Resin

    M.C. Lagel1, A. Pizzi1,2, S. Giovando3, A. Celzard4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 220-229, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634113

    Abstract With the depletion of fossil resources, tannin extracts can be a natural alternative to some synthetic products. Hydrolysable chestnut tannin extracts have been used to partially replace phenol in PF resins for phenolic rigid foams. Phenol-formaldehyde-chestnut tannin (PFT) phenolic foams were initially made from copolymerized PFT resins of different molar ratio. The PFT foams so prepared were tested for thermal conductivity, these being slightly worse than that of pure PF foams; and for mechanical and water absorption, these two properties being better than those of pure PF foams. Indeed, PF resins represent an important part of synthetic resins. They are… More >

  • Open Access


    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry of Phenol-FormaldehydeChestnut Tannin Resins

    M.C. Lagel1,*, A. Pizzi1,2, S. Giovando3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 207-219, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634111

    Abstract Natural hydrolysable chestnut tannin extracts used to partially substitute phenol in Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins for phenolic rigid foams were analysed by matrix-assisted desorption ionization time of fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. PF only, chestnut only and PF-chestnut copolymerised oligomer types and distribution were determined. MALDI-TOF analyses of a PF control resin (with the same molar ratio) and of chestnut tannin extracts were performed in order to identify the peaks of molecular weights corresponding to copolymers of chestnut tannins with phenol and formaldehyde. More >

  • Open Access


    Valorization of Tunisian Pomegranate Peel Tannins in Green Adhesives Formulation

    Houda Saad1,2,*, Antonio Pizzi3,4, Bertrand Charrier2, Naceur Ayed1, Karsten Rode5, Fatima Charrier - El Bouhtoury2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 34-43, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634130

    Abstract The possible use of Tunisian pomegranate tannins in wood adhesive formulation was studied for the fi rst time. Colorimetric tests, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to examine pomegranate tannins. Analysis showed that pomegranate peels are rich in hydrolyzable tannins. The Stiasny number tests showed the low reactivity of pomegranate tannin extract to formaldehyde and thus the diffi culty of using it in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and strength analysis of pomegranate tannin/hexamine-based resin showed weak bonding properties. More >

  • Open Access


    Self-Blowing Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Foams Based on Hydrolysable Tannins

    Elham Azadeh1, Xinyi Chen2, Antonio Pizzi2,*, Christine Gérardin1, Philip Gérardin1, Hisham Essawy3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3217-3227, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022740

    Abstract Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams using a hydrolysable tannin, also vulgarly called tannic acid, namely here commercial chestnut wood tannin extract was prepared. Compression strength did not appear to depend on the foam apparent density while the formulation composition of the NIPU foams has been shown to be more determinant. These NIPU foams appeared to be self-extinguishing once the high temperature flame is removed. The ignition time gave encouraging results but for improved fire resistance the foams may need some fire-retardant addition. FTIR spectrometry showed the formation of non-isocyanate urethane linkages. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated a good thermal resistance of these foams,… More >

  • Open Access


    Covalent and Ionic Bonding between Tannin and Collagen in Leather Making and Shrinking: A MALDI-ToF Study

    Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.8, pp. 1345-1364, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015663

    Abstract Collagen powder hydrolysates were reacted with a solution of commercial mimosa bark tannin extract. The mixture was prepared at ambient temperature and prepared at 80°C to determine what reactions, if any, did occur between the collagen protein through its amino acids and the polyphenolic condensed tannin. The reaction products obtained were analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry. Reactions between the two materials did appear to occur, with the formation of a relatively small proportion of covalent and ionic linkages at ambient temperature but a considerable proportion of covalent linkages tannin-protein amino acids and the… More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Green Adhesive with Tannin Extracted from Eucalyptus Bark for Potential Use in Wood Composites

    Medjda Amari1, Kamel Khimeche1,*, Abdelkader Hima2 , Redouane Chebout3, Abderahmane Mezroua1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 463-475, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013680

    Abstract Recently, the exploitation of renewable plant resources in the formulation of adhesives is very promising for their availability at low coast, as well as their richness in biomolecules such as polyphenols. In this way, many research studies tannins extracted from different sources such as mimosa, quebracho, and pine have been the subject of very satisfactory recent studies. In this paper, a new complete characterization of the tannins extracted from the bark of eucalyptus globulus harvested from two regions in Algeria was achieved. The structural characterization enabled us to confirm the richness in condensed tannins, particularly in procyanidin and prodelphinidin units.… More >

  • Open Access


    Extraction and Characterization of Aucoumea klaineana Pierre (Okoume) Extractives

    Engozogho Anris Starlin Peguy1,2, Bikoro Bi Athomo Arsene1,2, Vidal Marcia5, Denaud Louis4, Safou Tchiama Rodrigue2,3, Charrier Bertrand1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.6, pp. 517-522, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.04051

    Abstract In order to promote convenient strategies for the utilization of wood wastes from aucoumea klaineana pierre (okoume) timber industry, various chemical analysis were carried out on samples from different origins. Total extractives content of the bark, sapwood and heartwood of okoume were evaluated. thermogravimetric analyses were performed and the stiasny number was calculated. it was found that the bark was richer in fatty acid of high molecular weight while the sapwood was rich in fatty acid of low molecular weight. the condensed tannins content varied according to the origin and the part of the tree. these new findings should be… More >

  • Open Access


    Tannin-Based Biofoams-A Review

    Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.5, pp. 477-492, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.06511

    Abstract This review details the development of tannin-based biofoams for fire resistance and acoustic insulation and details the different varieties of these foams that have been developed, from tannin-furanic self-blowing foams to tannin-furanic polyurethanes and finally non-isocyanate tannin-based-carbohydrates polyurethanes (NIPU). More >

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