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Comparative Effectiveness of Mind-Body Exercise Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for College Students with Problematic Smartphone Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Chunping Lu1,#, Liye Zou2,#, Benjamin Becker3, Mark D. Griffiths4, Qian Yu2, Si-Tong Chen5, Zsolt Demetrovics6, Can Jiao7, Xinli Chi7, Aiguo Chen8, Albert Yeung9, Shijie Liu10, Yanjie Zhang2,11,*

1 The Greater Bay Area Institute of Educational Research, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China
2 Exercise and Mental Health Laboratory, Institute of Mental Health, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China
3 The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China
4 Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG1 4FQ, UK
5 Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, 8001, Australia
6 Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, 1139, Hungary
7 School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China
8 College of Physical Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225127, China
9 Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
10 School of Physical Education and Sport Training, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, 200438, China
11 Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea

* Corresponding Author: Yanjie Zhang. Email: email
# These authors contributed equally to this work

International Journal of Mental Health Promotion 2020, 22(4), 271-282. https://doi.org/10.32604/IJMHP.2020.014419

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of mind-body exercise (ME) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on addiction level and psychological well-being among college students with problematic smartphone use (PSU). Methods: A 12-week randomized controlled study was carried out at a university in central China. A total of 95 PSU college students who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a ME group (ME, n = 31), CBT group (CBT, n = 30), or control group (CG, n = 34). Both ME intervention and CBT, twice per week for 90 min per session, lasting for 12 weeks were administered by a certified therapist respectively. Participants in the CG group were asked to maintain their original lifestyle. Results: A significant reduction in addiction level (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CBT; p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG), loneliness (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG), anxiety (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG; p < 0.001 for CBT vs. CG) was found. Only significant stress reduction was observed in ME and CBT between baseline and Week 12 (ps < 0.001). Conclusions: ME and CBT (mainstream psychotherapy) may effectively overcome PSU of college students, and reduced the level of smartphone addiction, loneliness, anxiety, and stress. Furthermore, as a culture-specific, low-cost, and readily accessible training program with multiple components (gentle movement, anatomic alignment, mental focus, deep breathing, and meditative state of mind that is similar to mindfulness emphasizing noncompetitive, present-moment, and nonjudgmental introspective component), ME seems to be superior to CBT in terms of PSU.

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APA Style
Lu, C., Zou, L., Becker, B., Griffiths, M.D., Yu, Q. et al. (2020). Comparative effectiveness of mind-body exercise versus cognitive behavioral therapy for college students with problematic smartphone use: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 22(4), 271-282. https://doi.org/10.32604/IJMHP.2020.014419
Vancouver Style
Lu C, Zou L, Becker B, Griffiths MD, Yu Q, Chen S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of mind-body exercise versus cognitive behavioral therapy for college students with problematic smartphone use: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2020;22(4):271-282 https://doi.org/10.32604/IJMHP.2020.014419
IEEE Style
C. Lu et al., "Comparative Effectiveness of Mind-Body Exercise Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for College Students with Problematic Smartphone Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial," Int. J. Ment. Health Promot., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 271-282. 2020. https://doi.org/10.32604/IJMHP.2020.014419

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cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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