Vol.17, No.1, 2022, pp.5-23, doi:10.32604/CHD.2022.018728
OPEN ACCESS
EDITORIAL
New Insights into Sinus Venosus Defects from Cross-Sectional Imaging
  • Shi-Joon Yoo1,2,*, Sanga Lee3, Regina de la Mora4, Ankavipar Saprungruang2, Christoph Haller5, Lee N. Benson2, Vladimiro Vida6, Alvise Guariento6, Christopher Z. Lam1
1 Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
2 Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Labatt Family Heart Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
3 Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sejong Heart Center, Bucheon, Korea
4 Department of Radiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, Mexico City, Mexico
5 Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Labatt Family Heart Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
6 Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Unit, University of Padua Medical School, Padua, Italy
* Corresponding Author: Shi-Joon Yoo. Email:
Received 13 August 2021; Accepted 23 September 2021; Issue published 26 October 2021
Abstract
Sinus venosus defects include two varieties, superior and inferior sinus venosus defects. The superior sinus venosus defect is characterized by abnormal communication between two closely related venoatrial structures: 1) the normally positioned superior vena cava-right atrium complex and 2) the right pulmonary vein-left atrium complex that is displaced leftward, forward and upward. Inferior sinus venosus defects primarily involve the inferior vena cava-right atrial junction while the right pulmonary vein-left atrial junction can also be affected. Because of the rarity and wide variation of the defects, the morphological characterization of sinus venosus defects is inconsistent among investigators and often inaccurate. Modern imaging technologies with high spatial and temporal resolutions have allowed accurate and detailed assessment of the pathological anatomy in larger numbers of cases. In this pictorial essay, we revisit the established and controversial features of the sinus venous defects using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images obtained by magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) with brief discussion on imaging and treatment strategies.
Keywords
Sinus venosus defect; superior sinus venosus defect; inferior sinus venosus defect; anomalous pulmonary venous connection; overriding superior vena cava; overriding inferior vena cava
Cite This Article
Yoo, S., Lee, S., De, R., Saprungruang, A., Haller, C. et al. (2022). New Insights into Sinus Venosus Defects from Cross-Sectional Imaging. Congenital Heart Disease, 17(1), 5–23.
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