Vol.67, No.3, 2021, pp.3189-3214, doi:10.32604/cmc.2021.014746
Energy-Efficient Low-Complexity Algorithm in 5G Massive MIMO Systems
  • Adeeb Salh1, Lukman Audah1,*, Qazwan Abdullah1, Nor Shahida M. Shah2, Shipun A. Hamzah1, Shahilah Nordin3, Nabil Farah2
1 Wireless and Radio Science Centre (WARAS), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Pagoh, Muar, Johor, Malaysia
3 Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kampus Permatang Pauh Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, 13500, Malaysia
* Corresponding Author: Lukman Audah. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced 5G Communication System for Transforming Health Care)
Received 13 October 2020; Accepted 16 November 2020; Issue published 01 March 2021
Energy efficiency (EE) is a critical design when taking into account circuit power consumption (CPC) in fifth-generation cellular networks. These problems arise because of the increasing number of antennas in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, attributable to inter-cell interference for channel state information. Apart from that, a higher number of radio frequency (RF) chains at the base station and active users consume more power due to the processing activities in digital-to-analogue converters and power amplifiers. Therefore, antenna selection, user selection, optimal transmission power, and pilot reuse power are important aspects in improving energy efficiency in massive MIMO systems. This work aims to investigate joint antenna selection, optimal transmit power and joint user selection based on deriving the closed-form of the maximal EE, with complete knowledge of large-scale fading with maximum ratio transmission. It also accounts for channel estimation and eliminating pilot contamination as antennas M → ∞. This formulates the optimization problem of joint optimal antenna selection, transmits power allocation and joint user selection to mitigate inter-cell-interference in downlink multi-cell massive MIMO systems under minimized reuse of pilot sequences based on a novel iterative low-complexity algorithm (LCA) for Newton’s methods and Lagrange multipliers. To analyze the precise power consumption, a novel power consumption scheme is proposed for each individual antenna, based on the transmit power amplifier and CPC. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximal EE was achieved using the iterative LCA based on reasonable maximum transmit power, in the case the noise power is less than the received power pilot. The maximum EE was achieved with the desired maximum transmit power threshold by minimizing pilot reuse, in the case the transmit power allocation ρd = 40 dBm, and the optimal EE = 71.232 Mb/j.
Massive MIMO; energy efficiency; base station; active users; pilot contamination; low-complexity algorithm; radio frequency
Cite This Article
A. Salh, L. Audah, Q. Abdullah, N. S. M. Shah, S. A. Hamzah et al., "Energy-efficient low-complexity algorithm in 5g massive mimo systems," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 67, no.3, pp. 3189–3214, 2021.
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