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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Flame Retardant Material Based on Cellulose Scaffold Mineralized by Calcium Carbonate

    Jinshuo Wang, Lida Xing, Fulong Zhang, Chuanfu Liu*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 89-102, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.029057

    Abstract Wood-based functional materials have developed rapidly. But the flammability significantly limits its further application. To improve the flame retardancy, the balsa wood was delignified by NaClO2 solution to create a cellulose scaffold, and then alternately immersed in CaCl2 ethanol solution and NaHCO3 aqueous solution under vacuum. The high porosity and wettability resulting from delignification benefited the following mineralization process, changing the thermal properties of balsa wood significantly. The organic-inorganic wood composite showed abundant CaCO3 spherical particles under scanning electron microscopy. The peak of the heat release rate of delignified balsa-CaCO3 was reduced by 33% compared to the native balsa, according… More > Graphic Abstract

    Flame Retardant Material Based on Cellulose Scaffold Mineralized by Calcium Carbonate

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selecting the Technology of Sodium Silicate Modified Poplar with the Highest Performance by Fuzzy Orthogonal Method

    Xiaoqian Bi1, Pengfei Guan1, Ping Li2,*, Yuan Zhang1, Xingong Li1, Yingfeng Zuo1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 2399-2415, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026656

    Abstract Sodium silicate modification can improve the overall performance of wood. The modification process has a great influence on the properties of modified wood. In this study, a new method was introduced to analyze the wood modification process, and the properties of modified wood were studied. Poplar wood was modified with sodium silicate by vacuum-pressure impregnation. After screening using single-factor experiments, an orthogonal experiment was carried out with solution concentration, impregnation time, impregnation pressure, and the cycle times as experimental factors. The modified poplar with the best properties was selected by fuzzy mathematics and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TG.… More > Graphic Abstract

    Selecting the Technology of Sodium Silicate Modified Poplar with the Highest Performance by Fuzzy Orthogonal Method

  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    Bio-Based Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

    Xin Wang*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1627-1629, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027379

    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phosphorus Containing Rubber Seed oil as a Flame Retardant Plasticizer for Polyvinyl Chloride

    Hongying Chu1,2,*, Huabei Li1,2, Xiaoyan Sun1, Yaowang Zhang1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1731-1743, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024160

    Abstract The application of phthalate plasticizers has been restricted around the world due to their poor migration and potential harm to the human body. Hence, producing functional bio-based plasticizers via exploiting clean and reusable resources meets the satisfaction of current demands. In this study, flame-retardant rubber seed oil-based plasticize (FRP) was prepared via epoxidation reaction and ring opening addition reactions, which was used as a flame-resistant plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride to replace petroleum-based phthalate plasticizer. When DOP was replaced with FRP, the torque of PVC blends increased from 11.4 to 18.4 N⋅m, the LOI value increased from 24.3% for PVC-FRP-0% to 33.1%… More > Graphic Abstract

    Phosphorus Containing Rubber Seed oil as a Flame Retardant Plasticizer for Polyvinyl Chloride

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of MMT on Flame Retardancy of PLA/IFR/LDH Composites

    Ping Zhang, Siyu Gan, Lin Chen*, Hao Chen, Chunhui Jia, Yingke Fu, Ying Xiong*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2937-2947, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019590

    Abstract Nano filler synergistic intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system is an effective way to improve the flame retardant properties of polymer. In this study, the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) on the flame retardant properties of polylactic acid/layered double hydroxides (PLA/LDH) and PLA/IFR/LDH were investigated. The results show that both LDH and LDH/IFR can reduce the peak heat release rate (HRR) of PLA and prolong the combustion time of PLA; When a proportionate MMT is introduced into PLA/LDH and PLA/IFR/LDH systems, respectively, MMT will not only affect the degradation process of PLA composites during combustion, but also the PLA composites can form… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

    Meixian Li1, Xin Hu1, Jie Yang1, Hongyu Yang1,3,*, Yao Yuan2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.10, pp. 2639-2654, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019491

    Abstract In this work, a bio-based flame retardant (Cy-HEDP) was synthesized from cytosine and HEDP through a facile salt-forming reaction and embedded into epoxy matrix to improve the flame retardancy and smoke suppression performance. The product Cy-HEDP was well characterized by FTIR, 1 H and 31P NMR and SEM tests. On the basis of the results, by adding 15 wt% Cy-HEDP, the EP15 can pass UL-94 V-0 rating, and the total smoke production (TSP) as well as total heat release (THR) can be decreased by 61.05% (from 22.61 to 8.7 m2 /m2 ) and 39.44% (from 103.19 to 62.50 MJ/m2 )… More > Graphic Abstract

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

    Xianling Fu#, Hongliang Ding#, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2303-2317, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020759

    Abstract Although epoxy resin has been widely used in various fields, it still suffers from some problems including brittleness and flammability. In this study, a new phosphonic acid, N, N-bis(phosphomethyl) glycine (GDMP), was prepared by Mannich reaction with bio-based glycine and then a novel layered zirconium phosphonate (ZrGDMP) was synthesized using GDMP and zirconyl chloride hydrate as reactants. The chemical structure of ZrGDMP was well characterized by 1H and 31P NMR, SEM, XRD and XPS. The effect of ZrGDMP on the flame retardancy, smoke suppression, strengthening and toughening performances of the epoxy matrix was investigated and evaluated. TGA results indicated that… More > Graphic Abstract

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phosphorylated Salicylic Acid as Flame Retardant in Epoxy Resins and Composites

    Lara Greiner1,*, Philipp Kukla2, Sebastian Eibl1, Manfred Döring3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1931-1950, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019548

    Abstract A novel, versatile flame retardant substructure based on phosphorylated salicylic acid (SCP) is described and used in the synthesis of new flame retardants for HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin used in resin transfer molding processes as composite matrix. The starting material salicylic acid can be obtained from natural sources. SCP as reactive phosphorus chloride is converted with a novolak, a novolak containing 9, 10-dihydro-9- oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) substituents or DOPO-hydroquinone to flame retardants with sufficient thermal stability and high char yield. Additionally, these flame retardants are soluble in the resin as well as react into the epoxy network. The determined… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New DOPO-Eugenol Adduct as an Effective Flame Retardant for Epoxy Thermosets with Improved Mechanical Properties

    Daqin Zhang1,2, Chufeng Yang3, Huayang Ran1,2, Juanli Wang1,2,*, Jintao Wan1,2,*, Yuhu Li1,2, Pujun Jin1,2, Daodao Hu1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1797-1811, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018754

    Abstract The development of efficient green flame retardants is an important way to realize more sustainable epoxy thermosets and downstream materials. In this work, a monoepoxide is synthesized through O-glycidylation of eugenol, and then reacted with DOPO (9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophenanthrene-10-oxide) to obtain a new bio-based flame retardant, DOPO-GE. DOPO-GE is blended with a bisphenol A epoxy prepolymer exhibiting good compatibility and DDS (4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is used as the curing agent to afford epoxy thermosets. Although DOPO-GE leads to the reduced glass transition temperature of the thermosets, the storage modulus increases considerably. The DOPO-GE-modified thermosets exhibit the high thermal stability with the onset thermal decomposition… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Study on a Magnesium-Based Layered Composite Used as a Flame Retardant for Phenolic Epoxy Resins

    Hongxiang Liu1,2,,*, Neng Xiong1,2, Songli Wang1,2, Wei Zhang1,2, Bo Yong1,2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 549-561, 2022, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2022.017979

    Abstract

    The effects of a magnesium-based layered composite on the flammability of a phenolic epoxy resin (EP) are studied. In order to produce the required composite material, first, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum salt and deionized water are mixed into a reactor according to a certain proportion to induce a hydrothermal reaction; then, the feed liquid is filtered out using a solid-liquid separation procedure; finally, the material is dried and crushed. In order to evaluate its effects on the flammability of the EP, first, m-phenylenediamine is added to EP and vacuum defoamation is performed; then, EP is poured into a polytetrafluoroethylene mold, cooled… More >

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