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  • Open Access


    Influence of Water and Humidity on Wood Modification with Lactic Acid

    Charlotte Grosse1,2,*, Marion Noël1, Marie-France Thévenon3, Lauri Rautkari4, Philippe Gérardin2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 259-269, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634176

    Abstract Impregnation of dry wood with pure lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) followed by heat treatment confers promising properties to wood because of OLA's good diffusion, in-situ polymerization and persistence in cell walls. Treatment provides drastic reduction of the equilibrium moisture content, high dimensional stability and good durability. The presence of water during treatment has been evaluated. Curing of OLA impregnated dry wood in humid atmosphere leads to a strong and global degradation of the material. OLA treatment of wet wood only impacts the water leaching rate negatively. Treatment of dry wood with OLA diluted in water additionally decreases the biological resistance… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of the Nanocomposites from Chemically Modified Nanocellulose and Poly(lactic acid)

    Liqing Wei1, Shupin Luo2, Armando G. McDonald2, Umesh P. Agarwal1, Kolby C. Hirth1, Laurent M. Matuana3, Ronald C. Sabo1* , Nicole M. Stark1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 410-422, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634144

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable and sustainable filler for polymeric nanocomposites. However, their high hydrophilicity limits their use with hydrophobic polymer for composite materials. In this study, freeze-dried CNCs were modified by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester to reduce the hydrophilicity. The transesterified CNCs (CNCFE) were compounded with PLA into nanocomposites. CNCFE with long-chain hydrocarbons plays a role as plasticizer. Increasing CNCFE loadings resulted in clear plasticizing effects. Lower Tg and Tm were achieved for CNCFE-based nanocomposites. Plasticizing nanocomposite melt with CNCFE can mitigate the degradation of CNCs during thermal processing. The elongation at break of nanocomposites… More >

  • Open Access


    Durability of Thermally Modified Wood of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis Tested under Field and Accelerated Conditions

    Róger Moya*, Lucia Fallas-Valverde, Alexander Berrocal, Dawa Méndez-Álvarez

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 208-219, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634111

    Abstract This study evaluated the durability in terms of decay and mechanical resistance of thermally modified (TM) wood of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea treated at 160, 180, 200 and 220 °C. The TM wood of both species treated above 200 °C and 180 °C respectively presents lower weight loss (WL) after 300 days exposure in field and accelerated testing. It was also found that in field testing over 180 °C, the module of elasticity (MOE) and module of rupture (MOR) of the exposed and unexposed stakes of TM wood were not affected. Accelerated tests showed that the loss in flexural… More >

  • Open Access


    Opportunities for Cellulose Nanomaterials in Packaging Films: A Review and Future Trends

    Nicole M. Stark

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 313-326, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634115

    Abstract Performance requirements for packaging films may include barrier properties, transparency, flexibility, and tensile strength. Conventional packaging materials, such as plastic films and laminates, are typically made from petroleum-based polymers. Currently, there is a drive to develop sustainable packaging materials. These alternative materials must be able to be manufactured economically and on a commercial scale, exhibit barrier properties and transparency, and provide adequate mechanical performance. As a biobased, renewable material, cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are ideally suited to be used in sustainable packaging applications. CNs include cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and each can provide benefit to packaging films. Manufactured… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of Orthopedic Plates and Its Modification Based on Feature

    He Kunjin1,2, Zou Zeyu1, Zhang Rongli1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 265-286, 2015, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2015.012.263

    Abstract To quickly construct the orthopedic plates and to conveniently edit it, a novel method for designing the plates is put forward based on feature idea and parameterization. Firstly, attached to the existing or repaired bone model, the region of interest (ROI) is selected as the abutted surface of orthopedic plate, and the ROI is reconstructed to form a CAD surface. Secondly, the CAD surface is to be defined as a surface feature (SF) and then some semantic parameters are configured for it. Lastly, the plate body is constructed through thickening, and some higher parameters are defined for it so as… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Interface Modification on the Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composites Using Parallel Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    S. Namilae1, U. Ch,ra2, A Srinivasan3, N. Ch,ra4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 189-202, 2007, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2007.022.189

    Abstract Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations play an important predictive role in understanding the behavior of nanoscale systems. In this paper, parallel MD simulations are used to understand the mechanical behavior of interfaces in CNT based composites. We present an algorithm for parallel implementation of MD simulations of carbon nanotube (CNT) based systems using reactive bond order potentials. We then use that algorithm to model the CNT-polymer interfaces with various levels of interaction as (a) described only by long range Van Der Waals interactions (b) chemically bonded with fixed matrix and (c) chemically bonded with matrix explicitly modeled. It is shown that… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Gas Phase Nitration on Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Based Ion Exchange Resins

    Shishir Sinha1, Vinay Kumar2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 297-312, 2009, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2009.005.297

    Abstract High-capacity ion exchange resins based on Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) was developed during this study having higher mechanical strength, stable and, hydrophilic in nature compared to Poly styrene (PS) based systems. PMMA was cross-linked by Di Vinyl Benzene (DVB) to get macro porous PMMA-DVB resins by suspension polymerization. PMMA-DVB resins were surface modified by nitration followed by amination under appropriate temperature conditions. Change in the color of resin from white to pale yellow and pale yellow to golden yellow as well as characteristic peaks of NO2at 700 cm-1and 1400 cm-1and 3100-3200 cm-1for NH2group in FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of… More >

  • Open Access


    Computer Modelling of the Energy Distribution within Wood throughout Microwave Processing

    M. Daian1, A. Taube2, G. Torgovnikov3, G. Daian4, Y. Shramkov5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 165-172, 2008, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2008.008.165

    Abstract Microwave wood modification and treatment technologies become more and more essential within the wood industry due to their technical and economical advantages. Microwave processing of wood involves many complicated physical phenomena and requires a very careful control of variables (such as intensity of microwave power, loading period, maximum temperature, etc.) in order to reduce structural deformations of the processed wood. To optimise and minimise the project design engineers' work, modelling and simulation of the microwave energy-wood interaction represents an indispensable tool.
    This research work has been undertaken with the aim to design and optimise microwave applicators for microwave pre-drying… More >

  • Open Access


    Modification of Nano Tourmaline Surface Treatment Agent and Its Performance on Negative Ion Release

    Guorui Huang1, Zhongkai Cui2, Pengfei Zhu1, Xiaoyun Liu1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.1, pp. 145-150, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.02947

    Abstract In this paper, a kind of wall fabric’s surface treatment agent modified with nonionic surfactant was reported. This surface treatment agent was prepared by using nano tourmaline powder dispersion in water with surfactant as dispersants by sand milling. Under the influence of different dispersants, the negative ions releasing amount of functional wall fabrics, the milling process and the storage stability of nano tourmaline powder dispersion were discussed. The results showed that nano tourmaline powder dispersion achieved the smallest average diameter of 44 nm and had best storage stability that the average diameter maintained below 200 nm in 17 days when… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Lossless Data Hiding for JPEG Images Based on Histogram Modification

    Yang Du1, Zhaoxia Yin1,2,*, Xinpeng Zhang3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.55, No.3, pp. 495-507, 2018, DOI: 10.3970/cmc.2018.02440

    Abstract This paper proposes a lossless and high payload data hiding scheme for JPEG images by histogram modification. The most in JPEG bitstream consists of a sequence of VLCs (variable length codes) and the appended bits. Each VLC has a corresponding RLV (run/length value) to record the AC/DC coefficients. To achieve lossless data hiding with high payload, we shift the histogram of VLCs and modify the DHT segment to embed data. Since we sort the histogram of VLCs in descending order, the filesize expansion is limited. The paper’s key contribution includes: Lossless data hiding, less filesize expansion in identical pay-load and… More >

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