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  • Open Access


    Nanocelluloses from Eucalyptus Wood Pulp: A Morphological Comparison

    Antonio J. F. Carvalho

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 118-122, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634108

    Abstract Two nanocelluloses from eucalyptus, namely microfi brillated cellulose (MFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), were prepared and compared by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The MFC fi bers are 20–30 nm wide and are composed of very homogeneous bundles of aligned regular elementary fi brils of 3–5 nm diameter. They show long straight portions and short fl exible zones, attributed to crystalline and amorphous zones, respectively. The needle-shaped CNC was approximately 200 nm long and 10 nm wide in the wider portion. A model for the MFC structure, whose fl exible zones are formed by alignment of the amorphous portion of the… More >

  • Open Access


    A New Method for Developing Industrially Viable Nanocrystalline Cellulose-based Nanocomposites via Melt Compounding

    Marta Martínez-Sanz, Amparo López-Rubio, Maria José Fabra, José M. Lagaron*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 107-117, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634106

    Abstract Due to their high crystallinity and aspect ratio, bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) represent an appealing choice for the development of fully biobased nanocomposite materials with high barrier performance. However, their strong tendency to self-associate, together with their highly hydrophilic character, has restricted the production of nanocomposites containing cellulose nanowhiskers by industrial processing techniques such as melt compounding. Th is article presents an overview of the latest published results carried out within our group and also in other relevant literature, which have led to the development of an effi cient strategy for the incorporation of highly dispersed BCNW by melt compounding… More >

  • Open Access


    Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Grafted with Organic Acid Chloride of Different Sizes

    Aparecido Junior de Menezes1,3,*, Elson Longo2, Fábio Lima Leite1, Alain Dufresne3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 306-313, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634121

    Abstract In the work presented in this article surface chemical modifi cation was applied to ramie cellulose nanocrystals by grafting organic acid chlorides presenting different lengths of the aliphatic chain. The objective of this surface chemical treatment was to enhance the nonpolar nature of the grafted nanocrystals and improve their dispersibility in a nonpolar polymeric matrix. The occurrence of the chemical modifi cation was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the degree of crystallinity by X-ray diffraction, and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy with fi eld emission gun (FEG-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology and crystallinity provided… More >

  • Open Access


    Cellulose Nanocrystal from Washingtonia Fibre and Its Characterization

    Mohammad Jawaid1, Lau Kia Kian1, Hassan Fouad2, Ramzi Khiari3,4,5,*, Othman Y. Alothman6, Mohamed Hashem7

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1459-1470, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018415

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a biomaterial derived from plant lignocellulosic components, widely applied in various industrial fields. Concurrently, with the growth of awareness in developing green nanomaterial, the explored Washingtonia fibre could be alternative biomass for obtaining CNC products. In the present work, different acid concentrations of 5%, 15%, and 25% hydrochloric solutions were employed to produce CNCs from Washingtonia fibre. With the chemical treatments, the yield of the CNC product was successfully retained at 21.6%−25.1%. Individually separated and needle-shaped CNC particles could be observed under the microscopic viewing with the increased acid concentrations. From elemental analysis, a relatively pure… More > Graphic Abstract

    Cellulose Nanocrystal from <i>Washingtonia</i> Fibre and Its Characterization

  • Open Access


    Optimization Design of an Embedded Multi-Cell Thin-Walled Energy Absorption Structures with Local Surface Nanocrystallization

    Kang Xu, Tong Li, Gaofei Guan, Jianlong Qu, Zhen Zhao, Xinsheng Xu*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.130, No.2, pp. 987-1002, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.018128

    Abstract By means of the local surface nanocrystallization that enables to change the material on local positions, an innovative embedded multi-cell (EMC) thin-walled energy absorption structures with local surface nanocrystallization is proposed in this paper. The local surface nanacrystallization stripes are regarded as the moving morphable components in the domain for optimal design. Results reveal that after optimizing the local surface nanocrystallization layout, the specific energy absorption (SEA) is increased by 50.78% compared with the untreated counterpart. Besides, in contrast with the optimized 4-cell structure, the SEA of the nanocrystallized embedded 9-cell structure is further enhanced by 27.68%, in contrast with… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Mixing Strategy on the Structure-Properties of the PLA/PBAT Blends Incorporated with CNC

    Deniz Sema Sarul1, Dogan Arslan2, Emre Vatansever1, Yusuf Kahraman2, Ali Durmus3, Reza Salehiyan4, Mohammadreza Nofar1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 149-164, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017003

    Abstract Polylactide (PLA)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend nanocomposites including 3 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by melt compounding method in a twin-screw extruder and an internal mixer. Blend nanocomposites were formulated by diluting three different masterbatches prepared by solution casting method that contained 7 wt% of CNC. These masterbatches were: (m1) PLA/PBAT/CNC masterbatch; (m2) PLA/CNC masterbatch; and (m3) PBAT/CNC masterbatch. These were to explore how different preparation methods affect the dispersion and localization of CNC and hence the properties of PLA/PBAT/CNC blend nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the structural changes of the blends. Rheological properties… More >

  • Open Access


    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Ewa Szefer*, Agnieszka Leszczyńska, Edyta Hebda, Krzysztof Pielichowski

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1127-1142, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014584

    Abstract The aim of this work was to use cellulose nanocrystals that were obtained by hydrolysis in phosphoric acid solution and further modified with succinic anhydride in the microwave field for PLA reinforcement. A series of all-bionanocomposites containing unmodified and surface modified cellulose nanocrystals with CNC content in the range of 1–3 %w.t. were obtained by melt blending and tested by XRD, SEM, DSC and DMA to investigate the effect of surface esterification of CNCs on the structure, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties of bionanocomposites, as well as phase transitions of PLA in the presence of cellulosic nanofiller. DMA investigations showed the… More > Graphic Abstract

    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

  • Open Access


    Investigation of Core Loss Calculation Methods for Nanocrystalline Core in Medium Frequency Range

    Yunxiang Guo1, Cheng Lu1,2, Feng Yu1, Liang Hua1, Xinsong Zhang1,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 429-438, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011673

    Abstract Nanocrystalline core is often adopted in high-power medium-frequency transformer, whose excitation voltage is usually a rectangular wave with an adjustable duty ratio. In this paper, several kinds of methods are proposed for core loss calculation under non-sinusoidal voltage excitation by modifying the original Steinmetz equation (OSE). Firstly, these correction methods are compared in theory, and their analytical equations under rectangular voltage with an adjustable duty ratio are deduced. Then, a hysteresis loop measurement system is established to measure the core loss density of a nanocrystalline core. Based on the measured results of the core loss density under sinusoidal voltage excitation,… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Membrane from Recycling Waste Paper

    Xing Zhou1,*, Xin Zhang1, Dong Wang1, Changqing Fang1,*, Wanqing Lei1, Zhigang Huang2, Yonghua Song1, Xinyu He1, Yingwei Huang1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 631-645, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.010176

    Abstract Cellulose plays a key role in abundant organic natural materials meeting the increasing demand for green and biocompatible products. The highly crystalline nanoscale component of cellulose nanocrystals has recently attracted great attention due to the versatile performance as filler or matrix in producing functional materials. In this work, we prepared the waterborne polyurethane via a prepolymer process, and obtained cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals from waste paper via a facile acid hydrolysis process. After that, the cellulose nanocrystals were assembled into film and mixed with polyurethane to prepare flexible polyurethane/cellulose nanocrystals composite membrane with different soaking time. The correlation between the… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation of Dicarboxyl Cellulose Nanocrystals from Agricultural Wastes by Sequential Periodate-Chlorite Oxidation

    Xiaozheng Sun*, Qiang He, Yu Yang

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 447-460, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09671

    Abstract Agricultural waste straw is the renewable resource with the highest annual yield in the world. In value-added applications of agricultural waste, dicarboxyl cellulose nanocrystals (DCCs) are prepared from rice, wheat, and corn straw by sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation. In this study, DCCs from rice, wheat, and corn straw were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The carboxyl content of the DCCs was also investigated. XRD results show that the crystallinity index decreased after sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation; however, the cellulose I structure was maintained. TEM results show that rod-shaped DCCs… More >

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