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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of Soy-Tannin Gelling for Resins Applications

    Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023314

    Abstract Soy flour (SF), soy protein and soy protein isolates (SPI) have been the focus of increasing research on their application as new materials for a variety of applications, mainly for wood adhesives and other resins. Tannins too have been the focus of increasing research for similar applications. While both materials are classed as non-toxic and have achieved interesting results the majority of the numerous and rather inventive approaches have still relied on some sort of hardeners or cross-linkers to bring either of them or even their combination to achieve acceptable results. The paper after a presentation of the two materials… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Methodology to Reduce Thermal Gradients Due to the Exothermic Reactions in Resin Transfer Molding Applications

    Aouatif Saad1,*, Mohammed EL Ganaoui2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 95-103, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.022014

    Abstract Resin transfer molding (RTM) is among the most used manufacturing processes for composite parts. Initially, the resin cure is initiated by heat supply to the mold. The supplementary heat generated during the reaction can cause thermal gradients in the composite, potentially leading to undesired residual stresses which can cause shrinkage and warpage. In the present numerical study of these processes, a one-dimensional finite difference method is used to predict the temperature evolution and the degree of cure in the course of the resin polymerization; the effect of some parameters on the thermal gradient is then analyzed, namely: the fiber nature,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Study on the Resin Transfer Molding Curing Process for Thick Composites Materials

    Rida Tazi1, Adil Echchelh1, Mohammed Hattabi2, Mohammed El Ganaoui3, Aouatif Saad4,*

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 223-232, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.021976

    Abstract The successful manufacture of thick composites is challenging since the highly exothermic nature of thermoset resins and limited temperature control make avoiding the onset of detrimental thermal gradients within the composite relatively difficult. This phenomenon is mainly caused by exothermic heat reactions. The so-called Michaud's model has been largely used in the literature to reduce the gap between experience and simulation with regard to the effective prediction of the temperature cycle in these processes. In this work, another solution is proposed to simulate the curing process for thick composites, namely preheating the resin to activate the curing reaction before resin… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties, Biocompatibility and Anti-Bacterial Adhesion Property Evaluation of Silicone-Containing Resin Composite with Different Formulae

    Muzi Liao1,2,#, Hui Tong1,2,#, Xiangya Huang1,2, Fang Liu3, Jingwei He3,*, Sui Mai1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3201-3215, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022090

    Abstract Novel branched silicone methacrylate was developed. The mechanical and biological properties of the resin system were investigated to select the formula proportion with the best overall performance. The novel silicone-containing monomers were combined with an incremental sequence of glass filler concentrations in commonly used Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50, wt./wt.) dental resin systems. Physicochemical properties, surface properties, antibacterial adhesion effect, anti-biofilm effect, protein adsorption, and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The results showed that BSMs did not affect the double bond conversion of dental resin, but could reduce volumetric shrinkage (p < 0.05). The BSM containing resins can resist protein and bacteria adhesion (S. Mutans)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Beta-Cyclodextrin Functionalized Tin Phenylphosphonate on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Composites

    Yongming Chen1,2,#, Shuai Huang1,#, Han Zhao1, Ru Yang2, Yining He1, Tianyu Zhao1, Yunlong Zhang1, Qinghong Kong1,*, Shasha Sun3,*, Junhao Zhang3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3119-3130, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019576

    Abstract To enhance the thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is successfully introduced into the layered tin phenylphosphonate (SnPP), which is incorporated into EP matrix for preparing EP/β-CD@SnPP composites. The results indicate that the addition of β-CD@SnPP obviously improve the thermal stability and residual yield of EP composites at higher temperature. When the amount of β-CD@SnPP is only 4 wt%, EP/4β-CD@SnPP composites pass V-1 rating, and LOI value is up to 30.8%. Meanwhile, β- CD@SnPP effectively suppress the heat release and reduce the smoke production of EP/β-CD@SnPP composites in combustion, and the peak heat release rate… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

    Meixian Li1, Xin Hu1, Jie Yang1, Hongyu Yang1,3,*, Yao Yuan2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.10, pp. 2639-2654, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019491

    Abstract In this work, a bio-based flame retardant (Cy-HEDP) was synthesized from cytosine and HEDP through a facile salt-forming reaction and embedded into epoxy matrix to improve the flame retardancy and smoke suppression performance. The product Cy-HEDP was well characterized by FTIR, 1 H and 31P NMR and SEM tests. On the basis of the results, by adding 15 wt% Cy-HEDP, the EP15 can pass UL-94 V-0 rating, and the total smoke production (TSP) as well as total heat release (THR) can be decreased by 61.05% (from 22.61 to 8.7 m2 /m2 ) and 39.44% (from 103.19 to 62.50 MJ/m2 )… More > Graphic Abstract

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

    Xianling Fu#, Hongliang Ding#, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2303-2317, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020759

    Abstract Although epoxy resin has been widely used in various fields, it still suffers from some problems including brittleness and flammability. In this study, a new phosphonic acid, N, N-bis(phosphomethyl) glycine (GDMP), was prepared by Mannich reaction with bio-based glycine and then a novel layered zirconium phosphonate (ZrGDMP) was synthesized using GDMP and zirconyl chloride hydrate as reactants. The chemical structure of ZrGDMP was well characterized by 1H and 31P NMR, SEM, XRD and XPS. The effect of ZrGDMP on the flame retardancy, smoke suppression, strengthening and toughening performances of the epoxy matrix was investigated and evaluated. TGA results indicated that… More > Graphic Abstract

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

    Haizhu Wu1,#, Jinxing Li1,#, Shouhu Bao1, Fuxian Yang1, Jun Zhang1, Hisham Essawy2,*, Guanben Du1, Xiaojian Zhou1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2029-2039, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019834

    Abstract A cellular material in the form of 3-layered sandwich structure material was prepared via sole use of mechanical stirring without any use of a foaming agent, while Tween-80 was employed as a foam stabilizer via a developed in-situ mold casting. The resulting structure displayed a good appearance with no visual defects. The 3-layered composition of the sandwish structure, “nonporous resin layer-porous foam layer-nonporous resin layer”, was examined in terms of the microstructure, density & density distribution, pulverization ratio, mechanical strength, insulation and flame retardant performance. It was indicated from the results that the bonding between the resin layer and foam… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phosphorylated Salicylic Acid as Flame Retardant in Epoxy Resins and Composites

    Lara Greiner1,*, Philipp Kukla2, Sebastian Eibl1, Manfred Döring3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1931-1950, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019548

    Abstract A novel, versatile flame retardant substructure based on phosphorylated salicylic acid (SCP) is described and used in the synthesis of new flame retardants for HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin used in resin transfer molding processes as composite matrix. The starting material salicylic acid can be obtained from natural sources. SCP as reactive phosphorus chloride is converted with a novolak, a novolak containing 9, 10-dihydro-9- oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) substituents or DOPO-hydroquinone to flame retardants with sufficient thermal stability and high char yield. Additionally, these flame retardants are soluble in the resin as well as react into the epoxy network. The determined… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Study on a Magnesium-Based Layered Composite Used as a Flame Retardant for Phenolic Epoxy Resins

    Hongxiang Liu1,2,,*, Neng Xiong1,2, Songli Wang1,2, Wei Zhang1,2, Bo Yong1,2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 549-561, 2022, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2022.017979

    Abstract

    The effects of a magnesium-based layered composite on the flammability of a phenolic epoxy resin (EP) are studied. In order to produce the required composite material, first, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum salt and deionized water are mixed into a reactor according to a certain proportion to induce a hydrothermal reaction; then, the feed liquid is filtered out using a solid-liquid separation procedure; finally, the material is dried and crushed. In order to evaluate its effects on the flammability of the EP, first, m-phenylenediamine is added to EP and vacuum defoamation is performed; then, EP is poured into a polytetrafluoroethylene mold, cooled… More >

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