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  • Open Access


    Self-Cross-Linked Tannin-Aminated Tannin Surface Coatings for Particleboard

    Bengang Zhang1,*, Antonio Pizzi2,*, Mathieu Petrissans1, Anelie Petrissans1, Colin Baptiste1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.12, pp. 4097-4121, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.029761

    Abstract Aminated tannins were prepared by reacting mimosa condensed tannin extract with ammonia yielding the substitution of many, if not all of the tannin hydroxyl groups with –NH2 groups. A tannin-aminated tannin (ATT) particleboard coating was then prepared by reacting raw tannin extract with aminated tannin extract and thus cross-liking the two by substituting tannin’s hydroxyl groups with the –NH2 groups on the aminated tannin to form –NH-bridges between the two. The resulting particleboard coating gave encouraging results when pressed at 180°C for 3 min. Conversely, the system in which tannin was reacted/cross-liked with urea (ATU) by a similar amination reaction… More >

  • Open Access


    Flexible Biofoams Based on Furanics and Fatty Acids Esterified Tannin

    Elham Azadeh1, Ummi Hani Abdullah2,3, Christine Gerardin1,*, Antonio Pizzi1,*, Philippe Gerardin1, Cesar Segovia4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.10, pp. 3625-3645, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.030373

    Abstract Water repellant, flexible biofoams using tannin esterified with various fatty acid chains, namely lauric, palmitic and oleic acids, by reaction with lauryl chloride, palmitoyl chloride, and oleyl chloride were developed and their characteristics compared with the equivalently esterified rigid biofoams. Glycerol, while initially added to control the reaction temperature, was used as a plasticizer yielding flexible biofoams presenting the same water repellant character that the equivalent rigid foams. Acetaldehyde was used as the cross-linking agent instead of formaldehyde, as it showed a better performance with the esterified tannin. The compression results showed a significant decrease of the Modulus of Elasticity… More >

  • Open Access


    Little Secrets for the Successful Industrial Use of Tannin Adhesives: A Review

    Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.9, pp. 3403-3415, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.030930

    Abstract This brief article reviews a very particular and quite narrow field, namely what has been done and what is needed to know for tannin adhesives for wood panels to succeed industrially. The present fashionable focus on bioadhesives has led to producing chemical adhesive formulations and approaches for tannin adhesives as a subject of academic publications. These, as good and original they might be, are and will still remain a rather empty academic exercise if not put to the test of real industrial trials and industrial use. They will remain so without the “little” secrets and techniques outlined here that show… More >

  • Open Access


    Study on the Preparation Process Optimization of Plywood Based on a Full Biomass Tannin-Sucrose Wood Adhesive

    Wen Gu#, Xinyue Ding#, Min Tang*, Feiyan Gong*, Shuangshuang Yuan, Jintao Duan

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.8, pp. 3245-3259, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027461

    Abstract Biomass adhesive is conducive to decreasing the dependence of the wood adhesive industry on synthetic resin based on fossil resources and improving the market competitiveness of adhesives. It is also a critical breakthrough to realize the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality in the wood industry. In this study, a full biomass wood adhesive composed of tannin and sucrose was developed and applied successfully to the preparation of plywood. The preparation technique of plywood was optimized, and the chemical structure, curing performance, crystallization property and thermal performance of the adhesive were investigated. Results showed that: (1) hot-pressing temperature played… More >

  • Open Access


    Two-Step Preparation of Hierarchical Porous Carbon Materials Derived from Tannin for Use as an Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    Jianping Deng1, Qianqian Zhang1, Yuling Lan1, Lingcong Luo1, Zimin Dai1, Zhonghang Lin1, Zhixin Lu1, Jiancheng Yuan1, Yiqi Fu1, Lu Luo2,*, Weigang Zhao1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2631-2646, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027163

    Abstract The development and utilization of biomass and agroforestry processing byproducts for high-value applications have been an important topic in the field of renewable materials research. Based on this, a two-step microwave hydrothermal pre-carbonization and KOH activation method was proposed to synthesize tannin-based activated carbons with a high specific surface area, hierarchical pore structure, and good electrochemical performance. The microstructure, texture properties, and physicochemical characteristics were investigated. The results show that the prepared tannin-based activated carbons presented a hierarchical pore structure (micro- and mesopores) with a specific surface area as high as 997.46 m3 g−1 . The electrochemical analysis shows that… More > Graphic Abstract

    Two-Step Preparation of Hierarchical Porous Carbon Materials Derived from Tannin for Use as an Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

  • Open Access


    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

    Elham Azadeh1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Christine Gerardin-Charbonnier1,*, Philippe Gerardin1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2823-2848, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027651

    Abstract Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams from a commercial hydrolysable tannin extract, chestnut wood tannin extract, have been prepared to determine what chemical species and products are taking part in the reactions involved. This method is based on two main steps: the reaction with dimethyl carbonate and the formation of urethane bonds by further reaction of the carbonated tannin with a diamine-like hexamethylene diamine. The hydroxyl groups on the tannin polyphenols and on the carbohydrates intimately linked with it and part of a hydrolysable tannin are the groups involved in these reactions. The carbohydrate skeleton of the hydrolysable tannin is also able… More > Graphic Abstract

    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its  Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

  • Open Access


    Modification of Wood by Tannin-Furfuryl Alcohol Resins–Effect on Dimensional Stability, Mechanical Properties and Decay Durability

    Mahdi Mubarok1,2, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier1,*, Elham Azadeh1, Firmin Obounou Akong1, Stéphane Dumarçay1, Antonio Pizzi1, Philippe Gérardin1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 505-521, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024872

    Abstract Furfurylation is a well-known wood modification technology. This paper studied the effect of tannin addition on the wood furfurylation. Three kinds of dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, as well as glyoxal as a comparing agent, were used to catalyse the polymerisation of furanic or tannin-furanic solutions during wood modification. Impregnation of furanic or tannin-furanic solution at a certain concentration into the wood followed with curing at 103°C for a specific duration was performed for the wood modification. Different properties of the modified woods like dimensional stability, resistance of treatment to leaching, mechanical properties, decay durability against… More >

  • Open Access


    Fast Pressing Composite Using Tannin-Furfuryl Alcohol Resin and Vegetal Fibers Reinforcement

    Arnaud Nicollin1, Xinjun Li1, Pierre Girods1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Yann Rogaume1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 311-316, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634124

    Abstract Experimental investigations have been carried out on the potential use of tannin-furfuryl alcohol resin for biobased composites using vegetal fi ber reinforcement. Results showed that a mixture containing 54% furfuryl alcohol, 45% modifi ed quebracho extract and 0.9% paratoluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst yields a resin that can be used with a nonwoven fl ax fi ber mat to manufacture lightweight composites with good mechanical properties and a very short curing time with a regular hot press. The panels made were tested for tensile and fl exural modulus and strength, water resistance and thermo-degradation. More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic Foaming Behaviour of Polyurethane vs Tannin/ Furanic Foams

    M.C. Basso1,2, A. Pizzi1,3,*, A. Celzard4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 273-278, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634125

    Abstract : Simultaneously monitoring the variation of temperature, foam rising rate, internal foam pressure and dielectric polarisation, the latter being a direct measure of setting and curing of a thermosetting foam, has allowed the comparison of the dynamic variation of determinant parameters of polyurethane foams and of tannin/furanic foams of different formulation and characteristics. This monitoring provides a good description of the process and possible characteristics of the prepared foam and constitutes an invaluable tool for foam formulation. Such a comparison indicates that fundamental differences, but also similarities, exist between the foaming processes of the two classes of foam. The dynamics… More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Resins with Ozonized Sunfl ower Oil and Radiata Pine Tannins

    M.Thébault*, A.Pizzi, E.Fredon

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 242-252, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634121

    Abstract Sunfl ower oil was subjected to a fl ow of compressed air containing ozone for different time periods. The addition of α-D-Glucose was used to increase the aldehyde content by reduction of the intermediate ozonides of the ozonation reaction. These new oils were analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS spectrometry, and their relative aldehyde groups content measured by the Henick method. They were then mixed with an aqueous solution of Radiata Pine tannin to form resins, subsequently analyzed by 13C NMR and MALDITOF mass spectrometry. Wood particleboards were then made using some of these resins as the adhesive, and their internal… More >

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