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  • Advances in the studies on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of traditional Chinese medicinal plants
  • Abstract

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reside in the rhizosphere and form mutualistic associations with plant roots. They promote photosynthesis, improve stress resistance, and induce secondary metabolite biosynthesis in host medicinal plants. The AM fungi that are symbiotic with medicinal plants comprise a wide array of species and have abundant germplasm resources. Though research on the AM fungi in medicinal plants began relatively recently, it has nonetheless become an investigative hot spot. Several scholars have explored the diversity and the growth-promoting effects of mycorrhizal fungi in hundreds of medicinal plants. Current research on symbiotic AM fungi in medicinal plants has focused mainly…

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  • Poly(ADP-ribose), adherens junctions, vinculin and the actin cytoskeleton: Current evidence, future perspectives and implications
  • Abstract Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a highly negatively charged polymer. PAR is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs) and is involved in the assembly and stabilization of macromolecular complexes. Here, the presence and putative roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) associated to adherens junctions (AJ) and the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial and Schwann cells, is reviewed. The hypothesis generated by analogy, stating that PAR is associated to AJ in other cell types, is postulated. According to this hypothesis, PAR associated to puncta adherentia in chemical synapses would participate in plasticity, learning and memory. In turn, PAR associated to fascia adherens in cardiomyocytes, would affect heart beating.…
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  • Long term immunological perturbations post DAA therapy in chronic HCV/HIV co-infected patients
  • Abstract Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are efficacious for the achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR) in almost all treated hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, the impacts of HCV eradication on immune function and chronic immune activation in the long-term remain controversial and limited, especially in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Indeed, although restoration of many immune responses clearly can be observed, several features of immune perturbations persist over time after HCV clearance. Understanding the degree and reasons of the partial recovery of the immune system in chronic HCV/HIV co-infection after HCV elimination is pivotal to avoid disease progression…
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  • Exosomes from adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells: A key to future regenerative medicine
  • Abstract Advances in regenerative medicine correlate strongly with progress in the use of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. The range of therapeutic indications has also expanded over recent years. Numerous recent studies have highlighted the primary importance of paracrine secretion by these cells. Though it is interesting to compare the different types of such secretions, we believe that exosomes (extra-cellular vesicles possessing the same properties as their source cells) will likely be the main key in tomorrow’s cell therapy. Exosomes also have many advantages compared to the direct use of cells, making these particles a major target in fundamental and translational…
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  • Anti-cancer effects of sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and exendin-4 on triple-negative breast cancer cells via mitochondrial modulation
  • Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 is known for Warburg metabolism and defects in mitochondria. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin and GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 are known to improve mitochondrial functions as well as biogenesis, but no study has evaluated the influence of these drugs on mitochondrial biogenesis on metastatic breast cancer cell line. We have recently reported anticancer effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside on MDA-MB-231 cells via activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), which activates the downstream transcription factors PGC-1α, PGC-1β, or FOXO1 for mitochondrial biogenesis; above-mentioned incretin-based therapies are also known to…
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  • Nitric oxide alleviates cadmium-impeded growth by limiting ROS accumulation in pea seedlings
  • Abstract

    Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative stress, which leads to the oxidation of various biomolecules by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to facilitate programmed cell death (PCD). The antioxidant defense system fails to detoxify ROS when it is produced in excess. Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous free radical and a phytohormone, regulates various physiological processes of plants. Therefore, this work was undertaken to study the effects of the application of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) on growth parameters, oxidative stress, accumulation of secondary metabolites, and activities of antioxidant enzymes under Cd stress. Mild (50 µM) and severe (200…

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  • Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy on postnatal brain development: The potential role of glial cells
  • Abstract Glial cells are crucial for maintaining central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. They actively participate in immune responses, as well as form functional barriers, such as blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restrict the entry of pathogens and inflammatory mediators into the CNS. In general, viral infections during the gestational period can alter the embryonic and fetal environment, and the related inflammatory response may affect neurodevelopment and lead to behavioral dysfunction during later stage of life, as highlighted by our group for Zika virus infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a cytokine storm and, during pregnancy, may be related to a…
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  • Aptamer based detection and separation platforms for ochratoxin A: A systematic review
  • Abstract Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most dangerous mycotoxins for human health, has been subjected to numerous studies for separation and detection in minimal amounts. Aptamers as novel recognition elements have been employed to fabricate ultrasensitive biosensors for the detection of OTA and designing delicate analytical tools. This review attempted to comprehensively examine all reported aptamer-based detection and separation platforms for ochratoxin. The most relevant databases were considered to discover all specific aptamers for dealing with OTA. Aptamer-based detection and separation devices specified for OTA were searched for, analyzed, discussed, and classified based on their specifications. The optical aptasensors have…
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  • Development of a prognostic signature for esophageal cancer based on a novel 7-DNA damage repair genes signature
  • Abstract Esophageal cancer (EC) was an aggressive malignant neoplasm characterized by high morbidity and poor prognosis. Identifying the changes in DNA damage repair genes helps to better understand the mechanisms of carcinoma progression. In this study, by comparing EC samples and normal samples, we found a total of 132 DDR expression with a significant difference. Moreover, we revealed higher expression of POLN, PALB2, ATM, PER1, TOP3B and lower expression of HMGB1, UBE2B were correlated to longer OS in EC. In addition, a prognostic risk score based on 7 DDR gene expression (POLN, HMGB1, TOP3B, PER1, UBE2B, ATM, PALB2) was constructed for…
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