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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Study of Indentation Delamination of Strongly Bonded Films by Use of a Cohesive Zone Model

    W. Li1 and T. Siegmund1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 81-90, 2004, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2004.005.081

    Abstract Results of a computational study of the mechanics of indentation induced interface delamination are described for a system consisting of a ductile film on an elastic substrate. Special attention is paid to the properties of the interface between film and substrate, and the influence of the interface properties on the indentation response. Specifically, strong interfaces are considered. The interface is characterized by the use of a cohesive zone model. The finite element method is used to solve the boundary value problem, with the interface behavior incorporated via a cohesive model in a traction-separation formulation. The model does not include any… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antioxidant Migration Studies in Chitosan Films Incorporated with Plant Extracts

    Victor Gomes Lauriano Souza1, Patrícia Freitas Rodrigues2, Maria Paula Duarte1, Ana Luísa Fernando1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.5, pp. 548-558, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634104

    Abstract The aim of this work was to develop an active biopolymer based on chitosan by incorporating natural antioxidants. Five essential oils (ginger, rosemary, sage, tea tree and thyme) and six hydro-alcoholic extracts (from ginger, green and black tea, kenaf leaves, rosemary and sage plants) were tested. Migration assays were carried out to evaluate the films' activity, and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were monitored in the simulant during storage. Interaction between natural compounds and polymeric matrix was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy. The diffusion of the phenolic compounds was not detected in the films incorporated with hydro-alcoholic extracts (HAEs), indicating… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Carbon Nanotube/Cellulose Nanocrystal Hybrid Conducting Thin Films

    Christophe Olivier1,2, Jean Bruno Mougel1,2, Patricia Bertoncini1, Celine Moreau2, Isabelle Capron2, Bernard Cathala2, Olivier Chauvet1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 237-241, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634168

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have a high ability to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous media and to form hybrids. These hybrids are used to grow layer-by-layer thin films of controlled thickness. Thanks to the presence of SWNTs, these films are conducting. In this article, we describe the process by which the CNC/SWNT hybrids are obtained and discuss the electrical properties of the hybrid-based layer-by-layer films. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Production of Starch Films Using Propolis Nanoparticles as Novel Bioplasticizer

    Karolina Villalobos1, Hider Rojas1, Rodolfo González-Paz2, Daniel Brenes Granados2, Jeimmy González-Masís2, José Vega Baudrit1,3, Yendry Regina Corrales-Ureña1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 189-198, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634109

    Abstract Because starch is a biodegradable polymer with low cost and wide availability it is an attractive material for producing edible films for fruits. Films produced with pure starch have the disadvantage of being fragile. To overcome this issue, propolis nanoparticles were used as a novel plasticizer. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the films containing 0.5, 1 and 3 wt.% propolis nanoparticles were evaluated. The best performance was obtained using 0.5 wt.% propolis, increasing the Young’s modulus and decreasing the glass transition temperature (Tg), showing their plasticizing effect. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hydroxytyrosol as Active Ingredient in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Films for Food Packaging Applications

    Elena Fortunati1*, Francesca Luzi1, Chiara Fanali2, Laura Dugo2, Maria Giovanna Belluomo2, Luigi Torre1, José Maria Kenny1, Luca Santi3, Roberta Bernini3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 81-95, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634132

    Abstract Hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a biophenol found in extra-virgin olive oil or olive oil by-products, well known for its strong antioxidant activity, was used as active ingredient for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to develop film formulations by solvent casting process. The effect of HTyr on the morphological, thermal stability, optical, mechanical and release properties of PVA were investigated, while water absorption capacity, migration with food stimulants, water vapor permeability and antioxidant properties were tested taking into account the final application as food packaging systems. Morphological investigations evidenced homogeneity of all PVA/HTyr films, while the presence of HTyr clearly accounted for an increase… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Formation of Highly Oriented Cellulose Nanocrystal Films by Spin Coating Film from Aqueous Suspensions

    Mingzhe Jiang1, S. Nicole DeMass1, D. Ross Economy2, Thomas Shackleton1, Christopher L. Kitchens1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 377-387, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634131

    Abstract Spin coating was used to cast a uniform film of cellulose nanocrystals with low surface roughness and variable thickness as a function of operational parameters that include rotational speed and dispense suspension concentration. The film thickness was controllable from 40 nm up to 1 μm with surface roughness an order of magnitude less than blade-coating methods. The degree of radial orientation was qualitatively assessed and shown to be variable with processing parameters. Under specific processing conditions, the formation of striation patterns was observed and associated with film drying instability. The striation patterns are periodic in nature where the wavelength and… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Opportunities for Cellulose Nanomaterials in Packaging Films: A Review and Future Trends

    Nicole M. Stark

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 313-326, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634115

    Abstract Performance requirements for packaging films may include barrier properties, transparency, flexibility, and tensile strength. Conventional packaging materials, such as plastic films and laminates, are typically made from petroleum-based polymers. Currently, there is a drive to develop sustainable packaging materials. These alternative materials must be able to be manufactured economically and on a commercial scale, exhibit barrier properties and transparency, and provide adequate mechanical performance. As a biobased, renewable material, cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are ideally suited to be used in sustainable packaging applications. CNs include cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and each can provide benefit to packaging films. Manufactured… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    High Magnetic Field Annealing Dependent the Morphology and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Co/Ni Bilayered Films

    Donggang Li1,2, Alexandra Levesque2, Qiang Wang1,3,2, Agnieszka Franczak2, Chun Wu1, Jean-Paul Chopart2, Jicheng He1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 207-218, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2012.030.207

    Abstract Co/Ni bilayered films were prepared on ITO glass by electrodeposition assisted with a magnetic field up to 0.5T aligned parallel to the electrode surface. The effect of a high magnetic field annealing up to 12T on morphology and microstructure of the post-deposited films was investigated by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Grain shape and grain boundary in the Co/Ni morphology were modified dramatically when the high magnetic field was applied during the annealing process. Magnetic anisotropy appeared in the films due to the preferential orientation of fcc-CoNi alloy in comparison with… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Overview of Computational Modeling in Nano/Micro Scaled Thin Films Mechanical Properties and Its Applications

    Chang-Chun Lee1,*, Pei-Chen Huang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.120, No.2, pp. 239-260, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.06859

    Abstract This research reviews the application of computational mechanics on the properties of nano/micro scaled thin films, in which the application of different computational methods is included. The concept and fundamental theories of concerned applications, material behavior estimations, interfacial delamination behavior, strain engineering, and multilevel modeling are thoroughly discussed. Moreover, an example of an interfacial adhesion estimation is presented to systematically estimate the related mechanical reliability issue in the microelectronic industry. The presented results show that the peeled mode fracture is the dominant delamination behavior of layered material system, with high stiffness along the bonding interface. However, the shear mode fracture… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Thin Film Flow Over and Around Surface Topography: a General Solver for the Long-Wave Approximation and Related Equations

    P.H. Gaskell1, Y.C. Lee2, H.M. Thompson1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.62, No.1, pp. 77-112, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2010.062.077

    Abstract The three-dimensional flow of a gravity-driven continuous thin liquid film on substrates containing micro-scale features is modelled using the long-wave lubrication approximation, encompassing cases when surface topography is either engulfed by the film or extends all the way though it. The discrete analogue of the time-dependent governing equations is solved accurately using a purpose designed multigrid strategy incorporating both automatic error-controlled adaptive time stepping and local mesh refinement/de-refinement. Central to the overall approach is a Newton globally convergent algorithm which greatly simplifies the inclusion of further physics via the solution of additional equations of the same form as the base… More >

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