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  • Open Access


    Natural Additive for Reducing Formaldehyde Emissions in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

    Flávio Pereira1, João Pereira2, Nádia Paiva3, João Ferra3, Jorge Manuel Martins1,4, Fernão D. Magalhães1, and Luísa Carvalho1,4*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 41-46, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634128

    Abstract This work studies the use of soy protein as a natural formaldehyde scavenger in wood particleboard production. The protein is incorporated in two forms: a) as a powder, during the blending process of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde binder resin, and b) as an aqueous solution, added at different times during resin synthesis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the signifi cance level of two effects (amount of added soy and time of addition) on internal bond strength, thickness swelling, and formaldehyde content of the resulting panels. The results showed that soy protein can contribute to decrease the formaldehyde… More >

  • Open Access


    Shear Stress and Oxidized LDL Regulates Endothelial Cell Tube Formation through VEGF Signaling

    Bo Ling1,#, Daoxi Lei1,#, Juhui Qiu1, Kang Zhang1, Hao Chen2,*, Yeqi Wang1, Zhiyi Ye1, Guixue Wang*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.14, No.4, pp. 197-211, 2017, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2017.014.197

    Abstract Shear stress and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) caused by abnormal blood is critical to angiogenesis for atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism in shear stress or ox-LDL regulated angiogenesis is still not well understood. There is the hypothesis that shear stress or oxLDL regulates angiogenesis through the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. It is discovered that both high shear stress and low concentration of oxLDL contribute to angiogenesis, which is inhibited once the VEGF or VEGFR expression is knocked down. The expression of p-FAK and p-paxillin is regulated by the VEGF/VEGFR signal axis. VEGFR2, p-FAK, p-paxillin and VEGFR1 are VEGF-responsive… More >

  • Open Access


    Simvastatin Inhibits the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Macrophages Induced by Mechanical and/or Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    Kefeng Liu1,2, §, Zhengyu Zhang1,3, §, Ting Pei1, Ziqing Li4, Jingjing Wang1, Hong Wang1, Suning Ping1, Lie Deng1, Linli Wang1, Jintao Huang5, Puyi Sheng4, Shuying Liu1, Chaohong Li1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 101-123, 2017, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2017.014.099

    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effects of mechanical (MS) and/or oxidized low-density lipoprotein on proliferation and apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. The cultured quiescent RAW264.7 macrophages were subject to stimulation with MS and/or in the presence or absence of simvastatin and then harvested for Western blot, and immunoflourecence. Either MS or alone could cause increase in cell proliferation and apoptosis, while their combination led to an additive effect. In terms of mechanisms, MS and/or significantly increased phosphorylation levels of MAPKs (ERKs, JNKs and p38MAPK), promoted the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated DNA methylation in… More >

  • Open Access


    Shear Stress-mediated Angiogenesis Through Id1 Relevant to Atherosclerosis

    Yidan Chen#,1, Kang Zhang#,1, Juhui Qiu1, Shicheng He1, Junyang Huang2, Lu Huang1, Dongyu Jia3, Bo Ling1, Da Sun4, Xiang Xie1, Tieying Yin*,1, Guixue Wang*,1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 83-100, 2017, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2017.014.081

    Abstract Abnormal shear stress in the blood vessel is an important stimulating factor for the formation of angiogenesis and vulnerable plaques. This paper intended to explore the role of shear stress-regulated Id1 in angiogenesis. First, we applied a carotid artery ring ligation to create local stenosis in ApoE-/- mice. Then, 3D geometry of the vessel network was reconstructed based on MRI, and our analysis of computational fluid dynamics revealed that wall shear stress of the proximal region was much higher than that of the distal region. In addition, results from histological staining of the proximal region found more vulnerable-probe plaques with… More >

  • Open Access


    Use of Tensorial Description in Tissue Remodeling: Examples of F-actin Distributions in Pulmonary Arteries in Hypoxic Hypertension

    Wei Huang∗,†, Yi Wah Mak*, Peter C. Y. Chen‡§

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 91-104, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.091

    Abstract A molecular configuration tensor Pij was introduced to analyze the distribution of fibrous proteins in vascular cells for studying cells and tissues biomechanics. We have used this technique to study the biomechanics of vascular remodeling in response to the changes of blood pressure and flow. In this paper, the remodeling of the geometrical arrangement of F-actin fibers in the smooth muscle cells in rat's pulmonary arteries in hypoxic hypertension was studied. The rats were exposed to a hypoxia condition of 10% for 0, 2, 12, and 24 hr at sea level. Remodeling of blood vessels were studied at the in… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Mechanical Pressure on the Thickness and Collagen Synthesis of Mandibular Cartilage and the Contributions of G Proteins

    Min Zhang, Fa-Ming Chen, Yong-Jin Chen∗,‡, Shun Wu, Xin Lv, Rui-Ni Zhao

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 43-60, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.043

    Abstract To investigate the role of mechanical pressure on cartilage thickness and type II collagen synthesis, and the role of G protein in that process, in vitro organ culture of mandibular cartilage was adopted in this study. A hydraulic pressure-controlled cellular strain unit was used to apply hydrostatic pressurization to explant cultures. The explants were compressed by different pressure values (0 kPa, 100 kPa, and 300 kPa) after pretreatment with or without a selective and direct antagonist (NF023) for the G proteins. After 4, 8 and 12 h of cell culture under each pressure condition, histological sections of the explants were… More >

  • Open Access


    Cancer Cell(s) Cycle Sequencing Reveals Universal Mechanisms of Apoptosis

    R. M. Ardito Marretta*, F. Ales

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 225-266, 2010, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2010.007.225

    Abstract In this paper, cell cycle in higher eukaryotes and their molecular networks signals both inG1/SandG2/Mtransitions are replicatedin silico. Biochemical kinetics, converted into a set of differential equations, and system control theory are employed to design multi-nested digital layers to simulate protein-to-protein activation and inhibition for cell cycle dynamics in the presence of damaged genomes. Sequencing and controlling the digital process of four micro-scale species networks (p53/Mdm2/DNA damage, p21mRNA/cyclin-CDK complex, CDK/CDC25/wee1/ SKP2/APC/CKI and apoptosis target genes system) not only allows the comprehension of the mechanisms of these molecule interactions but paves the way for unraveling the participants and their by-products, until… More >

  • Open Access


    On p21 Tracking Property in Cancer Cell Unravelled Bio-Digitally in silico. Are Apoptosis Principles Universal?

    R. M. Ardito Marretta∗,†, G. Barbaraci

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 135-164, 2010, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2010.007.135

    Abstract Upon severe DNA damage, p21 acts in a dual mode; on the one hand, it inhibits the cyclin-CDK complex for arresting the G2/M transition and on the other hand, it indirectly becomes an apoptotic factor by activating - in sequence - the retinoblastoma protein, E2F1 and APAF1 expressions. But, in a cancer cells proliferation, the mechanisms of, and participants in, the apoptosis failure remain unclear. Since the p21/p53/Mdm2 proteins network normally involves a digital response in a cancer cell, through an original design of a cell signalling-protein simulator, we demonstrate,in silico, that apoptosis phase instability is fully reciprocated by p21mRNA… More >

  • Open Access


    Mechanistic Insights into the Physiological Functions of Cell Adhesion Proteins Using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

    Vedula S.R.K.*, Lim T.S., Hunziker W., Lim C.T.§

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 169-182, 2008, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2008.005.169

    Abstract Intercellular adhesion molecules play an important role in regulating several cellular processes such as a proliferation, migration and differentiation. They also play an important role in regulating solute diffusion across monolayers of cells. The adhesion characteristics of several intercellular adhesion molecules have been studied using various biochemical assays. However, the advent of single molecule force spectroscopy as a powerful tool to analyze the kinetics and strength of protein interactions has provided us with an opportunity to investigate these interactions at the level of a single molecule. The study of interactions involving intercellular adhesion molecules has gained importance because of the… More >

  • Open Access


    Tensorial Description of the Geometrical Arrangement of the Fibrous Molecules in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Wei Huang*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 119-132, 2007, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2007.004.119

    Abstract This work presents a tensorial description of the geometrical arrangement of the cellular molecules in the vascular endothelial cells. The geometrical arrangement of the molecules is the foundation of the mechanical properties of the molecular aggregates, which are the foundation of the physical behavior of the cells and tissues. For better studying the physical behavior of the cells and tissues, the geometrical arrangement of the cellular molecules has to be described quantitatively. In this paper, a second order molecular configuration tensor Pijg for fibrous protein in the cells is defined for quantitative measurement. Here, the subscripts i, j refer… More >

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