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In the article, Huinan Sun and her co-workers from COFCO Research & Engineering (Zhengzhou) Co., Ltd. and Dalian University of Technology investigated the flow characteristics of granular materials in a silo with a central decompression tube using experiments and discrete element methods. A silo with a central decompression tube is more conducive to grain storage and discharge than a silo without a central decompression tube.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Topology and Shape Optimization of 2-D and 3-D Micro-Architectured Thermoelastic Metamaterials Using a Parametric Level Set Method

    Ellie Vineyard1, Xin-Lin Gao2,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 819-854, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015688
    Abstract 2-D and 3-D micro-architectured multiphase thermoelastic metamaterials are designed and analyzed using a parametric level set method for topology optimization and the finite element method. An asymptotic homogenization approach is employed to obtain the effective thermoelastic properties of the multiphase metamaterials. The -constraint multi-objective optimization method is adopted in the formulation. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Poisson’s ratio (PR) are chosen as two objective functions, with the CTE optimized and the PR treated as a constraint. The optimization problems are solved by using the method of moving asymptotes. Effective isotropic and anisotropic CTEs and stiffness constants are obtained… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Flow Characteristics of Grains in a Conical Silo with a Central Decompression Tube Based on Experiments and DEM Simulations

    Huinan Sun1,*, Siqiang Wang2, Zhuoqing Zhang1, Chaoyong Xia1, Xu Chen1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 855-873, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015791
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Mechanics of Granular Materials and its Engineering Applications)
    Abstract Grains are widely present in industrial productions and processing, and are stored in silos. In the silo, auxiliary structures are added to achieve efficient production. However, little effort has been devoted to the influence of the internal structure of the silo on the granular flow. In this work, a silo with a central decompression tube is studied through experimental measurements and discrete element methods. Then, the influences of the central decompression tube on the flow behavior of grains and wall pressure are analyzed. Results show that the grains are in mass flow in the silo without a central decompression tube,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Solution and Analysis of the Fuzzy Volterra Integral Equations via Homotopy Analysis Method

    Ali. F. Jameel1,*, N. R. Anakira2, A. K. Alomari3, Noraziah H. Man1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 875-899, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014460
    Abstract Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) is semi-analytic method to solve the linear and nonlinear mathematical models which can be used to obtain the approximate solution. The HAM includes an auxiliary parameter, which is an efficient way to examine and analyze the accuracy of linear and nonlinear problems. The main aim of this work is to explore the approximate solutions of fuzzy Volterra integral equations (both linear and nonlinear) with a separable kernel via HAM. This method provides a reliable way to ensure the convergence of the approximation series. A new general form of HAM is presented and analyzed in the fuzzy… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hybrid Effects of Thermal and Concentration Convection on Peristaltic Flow of Fourth Grade Nanofluids in an Inclined Tapered Channel: Applications of Double-Diffusivity

    Safia Akram*, Alia Razia
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 901-922, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014469
    Abstract This article brings into focus the hybrid effects of thermal and concentration convection on peristaltic pumping of fourth grade nanofluids in an inclined tapered channel. First, the brief mathematical modelling of the fourth grade nanofluids is provided along with thermal and concentration convection. The Lubrication method is used to simplify the partial differential equations which are tremendously nonlinear. Further, analytical technique is applied to solve the differential equations that are strongly nonlinear in nature, and exact solutions of temperature, volume fraction of nanoparticles, and concentration are studied. Numerical and graphical findings manifest the influence of various physical flow-quantity parameters. It… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Nonlinear Coupling of Oscillating Bubble and Floating Body with Circular Hole

    Ming He, Yunlong Liu*, Shaofei Ren, Wentao Liu
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 923-942, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015259
    Abstract The fluid-structure interaction of the oscillating bubble and floating body with circular hole is essentially the nonlinear coupling problem among the incomplete movable boundary, free surface and bubble. This problem is particularly complicated in bubble dynamics. Combined with the volume of fluid method, the Eulerian finite element method is employed to deal with the fluid movement. Based on the improved penalty immersed boundary method, the transient axisymmetric numerical model is established in this paper, considering the fluid-structure interaction effect. The results of simulation are consistent with those of the electric discharge bubble experiment and explosion experiment. Subsequently, considering the influence… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Self-Driving Algorithm and Location Estimation Method for Small Environmental Monitoring Robot in Underground Mines

    Heonmoo Kim, Yosoon Choi*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 943-964, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015300
    Abstract In underground mine environments where various hazards exist, such as tunnel collapse, toxic gases, the application of autonomous robots can improve the stability of exploration and efficiently perform repetitive exploratory operations. In this study, we developed a small autonomous driving robot for unmanned environmental monitoring in underground mines. The developed autonomous driving robot controls the steering according to the distance to the tunnel wall measured using the light detection and ranging sensor mounted on the robot to estimate its location by simultaneously considering the measured values of the inertial measurement unit and encoder sensors. In addition, the robot autonomously drives… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    PotholeEye+: Deep-Learning Based Pavement Distress Detection System toward Smart Maintenance

    Juyoung Park1,*, Jung Hee Lee1, Junseong Bang2,3
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 965-976, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014669
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: HPC with Artificial Intelligence based Deep Video Data Analytics: Models, Applications and Approaches)
    Abstract

    We propose a mobile system, called PotholeEye+, for automatically monitoring the surface of a roadway and detecting the pavement distress in real-time through analysis of a video. PotholeEye+ pre-processes the images, extracts features, and classifies the distress into a variety of types, while the road manager is driving. Every day for a year, we have tested PotholeEye+ on real highway involving real settings, a camera, a mini computer, a GPS receiver, and so on. Consequently, PotholeEye+ detected the pavement distress with accuracy of 92%, precision of 87% and recall 74% averagely during driving at an average speed of 110 km/h… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Method for Collision Avoidance in Spacecraft Rendezvous Problems with Space Objects in a Phasing Orbit

    Danhe Chen1,*, A. A. Baranov2, Chuangge Wang1, M. O. Karatunov3, N. Yu. Makarov3
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 977-991, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014662
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Modeling and Analysis of Autonomous Intelligence)
    Abstract As the number of space objects (SO) increases, collision avoidance problem in the rendezvous tasks or re-constellation of satellites with SO has been paid more attention, and the dangerous area of a possible collision should be derived. In this paper, a maneuvering method is proposed for avoiding collision with a space debris object in the phasing orbit of the initial optimal solution. Accordingly, based on the plane of eccentricity vector components, relevant dangerous area which is bounded by two parallel lines is formulated. The axises of eccentricity vector system pass through the end of eccentricity vector of phasing orbit in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Equal-Norm Multiple-Scale Trefftz Method for Solving the Nonlinear Sloshing Problem with Baffles

    Chao-Feng Shih1, Yung-Wei Chen1,3,*, Jiang-Ren Chang2, Shih-Ping Soon1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 993-1012, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.012702
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Modeling Real World Problems with Mathematics)
    Abstract

    In this paper, the equal-norm multiple-scale Trefftz method combined with the implicit Lie-group scheme is applied to solve the two-dimensional nonlinear sloshing problem with baffles. When considering solving sloshing problems with baffles by using boundary integral methods, degenerate geometry and problems of numerical instability are inevitable. To avoid numerical instability, the multiple-scale characteristic lengths are introduced into T-complete basis functions to efficiently govern the high-order oscillation disturbance. Again, the numerical noise propagation at each time step is eliminated by the vector regularization method and the group-preserving scheme. A weighting factor of the group-preserving scheme is introduced into a linear system… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Regarding on the Fractional Mathematical Model of Tumour Invasion and Metastasis

    P. Veeresha1, Esin Ilhan2, D. G. Prakasha3, Haci Mehmet Baskonus4, Wei Gao5,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1013-1036, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014988
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Mathematical Aspects of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
    Abstract In this paper, we analyze the behaviour of solution for the system exemplifying model of tumour invasion and metastasis by the help of q-homotopy analysis transform method (q-HATM) with the fractional operator. The analyzed model consists of a system of three nonlinear differential equations elucidating the activation and the migratory response of the degradation of the matrix, tumour cells and production of degradative enzymes by the tumour cells. The considered method is graceful amalgamations of q-homotopy analysis technique with Laplace transform (LT), and Caputo–Fabrizio (CF) fractional operator is hired in the present study. By using the fixed point theory, existence… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    ANC: Attention Network for COVID-19 Explainable Diagnosis Based on Convolutional Block Attention Module

    Yudong Zhang1,3,*, Xin Zhang2,*, Weiguo Zhu1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1037-1058, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015807
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computer-Assisted Imaging Processing and Machine Learning Applications on Diagnosis of Chest Radiograph)
    Abstract Aim: To diagnose COVID-19 more efficiently and more correctly, this study proposed a novel attention network for COVID-19 (ANC). Methods: Two datasets were used in this study. An 18-way data augmentation was proposed to avoid overfitting. Then, convolutional block attention module (CBAM) was integrated to our model, the structure of which is fine-tuned. Finally, Grad-CAM was used to provide an explainable diagnosis. Results: The accuracy of our ANC methods on two datasets are 96.32% ± 1.06%, and 96.00% ± 1.03%, respectively. Conclusions: This proposed ANC method is superior to 9 state-of-the-art approaches. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Simple Cement Hydration Model Considering the Influences of Water-to-Cement Ratio and Mineral Composition

    Baoyu Ma1,*, Guansuo Dui2, Zhenglin Jia1, Bo Yang1, Chunyan Yang1, Quangui Gao1, Longhua Qin1, Ju Ma1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1059-1067, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015776
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Modeling of Heterogeneous Materials)
    Abstract A simple hydration model is used here by taking the composition of the cement and the initial water: cement ratio (w/c) into account explicitly. Its conceptual basis is a combination of the Avrami equation and Bentz’s model based on simple spatial considerations. In this model, the Avrami equation determines the initial reaction, and Bentz’s model describes the following hydration stage. The model favors engineers for it relies on one experimental parameter and has a reliable approximation in the practice. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mining Bytecode Features of Smart Contracts to Detect Ponzi Scheme on Blockchain

    Xiajiong Shen1,3, Shuaimin Jiang2,3, Lei Zhang1,2,3,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1069-1085, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015736
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Blockchain Security)
    Abstract The emergence of smart contracts has increased the attention of industry and academia to blockchain technology, which is tamper-proofing, decentralized, autonomous, and enables decentralized applications to operate in untrustworthy environments. However, these features of this technology are also easily exploited by unscrupulous individuals, a typical example of which is the Ponzi scheme in Ethereum. The negative effect of unscrupulous individuals writing Ponzi scheme-type smart contracts in Ethereum and then using these contracts to scam large amounts of money has been significant. To solve this problem, we propose a detection model for detecting Ponzi schemes in smart contracts using bytecode. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bilateral Filter for the Optimization of Composite Structures

    Yuhang Huo1, Ye Tian1, Shiming Pu1, Tielin Shi1, Qi Xia1,2,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1087-1099, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015694
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Structural Optimization)
    Abstract In the present study, we propose to integrate the bilateral filter into the Shepard-interpolation-based method for the optimization of composite structures. The bilateral filter is used to avoid defects in the structure that may arise due to the gap/overlap of adjacent fiber tows or excessive curvature of fiber tows. According to the bilateral filter, sensitivities at design points in the filter area are smoothed by both domain filtering and range filtering. Then, the filtered sensitivities are used to update the design variables. Through several numerical examples, the effectiveness of the method was verified. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of One-Dimensional Compression under a Wide Range of Stress with Densely Arrayed BPM

    Tao Zhang1,*, Ke Xu1,2, Wenxiong Huang1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1101-1117, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015406
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Mechanics of Granular Materials and its Engineering Applications)
    Abstract In this paper, the densely arrayed bonded particle model is proposed for simulation of granular materials with discrete element method (DEM) considering particle crushing. This model can solve the problem of pore calculation after the grains are crushed, and reduce the producing time of specimen. In this work, several one-dimensional compressing simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of particle crushing on mechanical properties of granular materials under a wide range of stress. The results show that the crushing process of granular materials can be divided into four different stages according to er-logσy curves. At the end of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Discrete Particle Simulation of Gas-Solid Flow in Air-Blowing Seed Metering Device

    Zhengquan Li1,*, Pei Zhang1, Yongchang Sun1, Chenglin Zheng1, Liang Xu2, Dianyu E1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1119-1132, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.016019
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Mechanics of Granular Materials and its Engineering Applications)
    Abstract In this paper, the gas and seed flow characters in the air-blowing seed metering device are investigated by using the coupled computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method (CFD-DEM) in three dimensions (3D). The method of establishing boundary model based on the computer-aided design (CAD) drawing, has been used to build the boundary model of seed metering device. The 3D laser scanning technique and multi-element method are adopted to establish the particle model. Through a combined numerical and experimental effort, using 3D CFD-DEM software, which is based on the in-house codes, the mechanisms governing the gas and solid dynamic behaviors… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of Coarse Graining DEM Models Based on Exact Scaling Laws

    Bin Zhang1,2, Yiming Huang3,4, Tingting Zhao5,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1133-1150, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.016018
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Mechanics of Granular Materials and its Engineering Applications)
    Abstract The simulation of a large number of particles requires unacceptable computational time that is the most critical problem existing in the industrial application of the DEM. Coarse graining is a promising approach to facilitate the application of DEM to industrial problems. While the current coarse graining framework is often developed in an ad-hoc manner, leading to different formulations and different solution accuracy and efficiency. Therefore, in this paper, existing coarse graining techniques have been carefully analysed by the exact scaling law which can provide the theory basis for the upscaling method. A proper scaling rule for the size of particles… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Evolutionary Algorithm for Non-Destructive Reverse Engineering of Integrated Circuits

    Huan Zhang1,2, Jiliu Zhou1,2,*, Xi Wu2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1151-1175, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015462
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Intelligent Models for Security and Resilience in Cyber Physical Systems)
    Abstract In hardware Trojan detection technology, destructive reverse engineering can restore an original integrated circuit with the highest accuracy. However, this method has a much higher overhead in terms of time, effort, and cost than bypass detection. This study proposes an algorithm, called mixed-feature gene expression programming, which applies non-destructive reverse engineering to the chip with bypass detection data. It aims to recover the original integrated circuit hardware, or else reveal the unknown circuit design in the chip. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Parameters Identification of Tunnel Jointed Surrounding Rock Based on Gaussian Process Regression Optimized by Difference Evolution Algorithm

    Annan Jiang*, Xinping Guo, Shuai Zheng, Mengfei Xu
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1177-1199, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014199
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Intelligent Computing for Engineering Applications)
    Abstract Due to the geological body uncertainty, the identification of the surrounding rock parameters in the tunnel construction process is of great significance to the calculation of tunnel stability. The ubiquitous-joint model and three-dimensional numerical simulation have advantages in the parameter identification of surrounding rock with weak planes, but conventional methods have certain problems, such as a large number of parameters and large time consumption. To solve the problems, this study combines the orthogonal design, Gaussian process (GP) regression, and difference evolution (DE) optimization, and it constructs the parameters identification method of the jointed surrounding rock. The calculation process of parameters… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Control Charts for the Shape Parameter of Power Function Distribution under Different Classical Estimators

    Azam Zaka1, Ahmad Saeed Akhter1, Riffat Jabeen2,*, Aamir Sanaullah2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.3, pp. 1201-1223, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014477
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Intelligent Computing for Engineering Applications)
    Abstract In practice, the control charts for monitoring of process mean are based on the normality assumption. But the performance of the control charts is seriously affected if the process of quality characteristics departs from normality. For such situations, we have modified the already existing control charts such as Shewhart control chart, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart and hybrid exponentially weighted moving average (HEWMA) control chart by assuming that the distribution of underlying process follows Power function distribution (PFD). By considering the situation that the parameters of PFD are unknown, we estimate them by using three classical estimation methods,… More >

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