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Aiming to optimize the stiffened plate structures explicitly, a novel approach based on the MMC-solution framework is proposed in this work. All the stiffeners are represented under the Lagrangian-description framework in a fully explicit way, and the adaptive ground structure method, as well as dynamically updated shell elements, is used to obtain optimized designs with more accurate analysis results. Compared with previous methods, the proposed method has fewer design variables and can easily accomplish feature size control of the stiffeners. Various types of stiffened plate structures, including straight and curved stiffeners, hierarchical stiffeners, and stiffened plates with cutouts, can be optimized uniformly in this method. In addition, the optimized designs can be seamlessly imported into CAD systems without resorting to any post-processing process.

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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Explicit Topology Optimization Design of Stiffened Plate Structures Based on the Moving Morphable Component (MMC) Method

    Xudong Jiang1, Chang Liu1,2,*, Shaohui Zhang3, Weisheng Zhang1,2, Zongliang Du1,2, Xiaoyu Zhang3, Huizhong Zeng3, Xu Guo1,2,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 809-838, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.023561
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Structural Optimization)
    Abstract This paper proposes an explicit method for topology optimization of stiffened plate structures. The present work is devoted to simultaneously optimizing stiffeners’ shape, size and layout by seeking the optimal geometry parameters of a series of moving morphable components (MMC). The stiffeners with straight skeletons and the stiffeners with curved skeletons are considered to enhance the modeling and optimization capability of the current approach. All the stiffeners are represented under the Lagrangian-description framework in a fully explicit way, and the adaptive ground structure method, as well as dynamically updated plate/shell elements, is used to obtain optimized designs with more accurate… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Explicit Topology Optimization Design of Stiffened Plate Structures Based on the Moving Morphable Component (MMC) Method

  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    Introduction to the Special Issue on Soft Computing Techniques in Materials Science and Engineering

    Panagiotis G. Asteris1,*, Danial Jahed Armaghani2, Liborio Cavaleri3, Hoang Nguyen4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 839-841, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.025694
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Soft Computing Techniques in Materials Science and Engineering)
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Towards a Unified Single Analysis Framework Embedded with Multiple Spatial and Time Discretized Methods for Linear Structural Dynamics

    David Tae, Kumar K. Tamma*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 843-885, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.023071
    Abstract We propose a novel computational framework that is capable of employing different time integration algorithms and different space discretized methods such as the Finite Element Method, particle methods, and other spatial methods on a single body sub-divided into multiple subdomains. This is in conjunction with implementing the well known Generalized Single Step Single Solve (GS4) family of algorithms which encompass the entire scope of Linear Multistep algorithms that have been developed over the past 50 years or so and are second order accurate into the Differential Algebraic Equation framework. In the current state of technology, the coupling of altogether different… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Developments and Applications of Neutrosophic Theory in Civil Engineering Fields: A Review

    Zhenhan Zhang, Jun Ye*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 887-916, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.022961
    Abstract Neutrosophic theory can effectively and reasonably express indeterminate, inconsistent, and incomplete information. Since Smarandache proposed the neutrosophic theory in 1998, neutrosophic theory and related research have been developed and applied to many important fields. Indeterminacy and fuzziness are one of the main research issues in the field of civil engineering. Therefore, the neutrosophic theory is very suitable for modeling and applications of civil engineering fields. This review paper mainly describes the recent developments and applications of neutrosophic theory in four important research areas of civil engineering: the neutrosophic decision-making theory and applied methods, the neutrosophic evaluation methods and applications of… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Surface Characteristics Measurement Using Computer Vision: A Review

    Abdul Wahab Hashmi1, Harlal Singh Mali1, Anoj Meena1, Mohammad Farukh Hashmi2, Neeraj Dhanraj Bokde3,4,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 917-1005, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.021223
    Abstract Computer vision provides image-based solutions to inspect and investigate the quality of the surface to be measured. For any components to execute their intended functions and operations, surface quality is considered equally significant to dimensional quality. Surface Roughness (Ra) is a widely recognized measure to evaluate and investigate the surface quality of machined parts. Various conventional methods and approaches to measure the surface roughness are not feasible and appropriate in industries claiming 100% inspection and examination because of the time and efforts involved in performing the measurement. However, Machine vision has emerged as the innovative approach to executing the surface… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Progress of Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membrane: A Review

    Saher Manzoor1, Muhammad Waseem Ashraf1,*, Shahzadi Tayyaba2, Muhammad Imran Tariq3,*, M. Khalid Hossain4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1007-1052, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022093
    Abstract The progress of membrane technology with the development of membranes with controlled parameters led to porous membranes. These membranes can be formed using different methods and have numerous applications in science and technology. Anodization of aluminum in this aspect is an electro-synthetic process that changes the surface of the metal through oxidation to deliver an anodic oxide layer. This process results in a self-coordinated, exceptional cluster of round and hollow formed pores with controllable pore widths, periodicity, and thickness. Categorization in barrier type and porous type films, and different methods for the preparation of membranes, have been discussed. After the… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Recent Progress of Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membrane: A Review

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Challenges and Limitations in Speech Recognition Technology: A Critical Review of Speech Signal Processing Algorithms, Tools and Systems

    Sneha Basak1, Himanshi Agrawal1, Shreya Jena1, Shilpa Gite2,*, Mrinal Bachute2, Biswajeet Pradhan3,4,5,*, Mazen Assiri4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1053-1089, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021755
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI-Driven Engineering Applications)
    Abstract Speech recognition systems have become a unique human-computer interaction (HCI) family. Speech is one of the most naturally developed human abilities; speech signal processing opens up a transparent and hand-free computation experience. This paper aims to present a retrospective yet modern approach to the world of speech recognition systems. The development journey of ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) has seen quite a few milestones and breakthrough technologies that have been highlighted in this paper. A step-by-step rundown of the fundamental stages in developing speech recognition systems has been presented, along with a brief discussion of various modern-day developments and applications in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Efficient Origin-Destination Estimation Using Microscopic Traffic Simulation with Restricted Rerouting

    Kazuki Abe1,*, Hideki Fujii2, Shinobu Yoshimura2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1091-1109, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021376
    Abstract Traffic simulators are utilized to solve a variety of traffic-related problems. For such simulators, origin-destination (OD) traffic volumes as mobility demands are required to input, and we need to estimate them. The authors regard an OD estimation as a bi-level programming problem, and apply a microscopic traffic simulation model to it. However, the simulation trials can be computationally expensive if full dynamic rerouting is allowed, when employing multi-agent-based models in the estimation process. This paper proposes an efficient OD estimation method using a multi-agent-based simulator with restricted dynamic rerouting to reduce the computational load. Even though, in the case of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nonlinear Algebraic Equations Solved by an Optimal Splitting-Linearizing Iterative Method

    Chein-Shan Liu1, Essam R. El-Zahar2,3, Yung-Wei Chen4,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1111-1130, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021655
    Abstract How to accelerate the convergence speed and avoid computing the inversion of a Jacobian matrix is important in the solution of nonlinear algebraic equations (NAEs). This paper develops an approach with a splitting-linearizing technique based on the nonlinear term to reduce the effect of the nonlinear terms. We decompose the nonlinear terms in the NAEs through a splitting parameter and then linearize the NAEs around the values at the previous step to a linear system. Through the maximal orthogonal projection concept, to minimize a merit function within a selected interval of splitting parameters, the optimal parameters can be quickly determined.… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Nonlinear Algebraic Equations Solved by an Optimal Splitting-Linearizing Iterative Method

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Algebraic Properties for Molecular Structure of Magnesium Iodide

    Ali N. A. Koam1, Ali Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Azeem3, Muhammad Kamran Siddiqui4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1131-1146, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.020884
    Abstract As an inorganic chemical, magnesium iodide has a significant crystalline structure. It is a complex and multi-functional substance that has the potential to be used in a wide range of medical advancements. Molecular graph theory, on the other hand, provides a sufficient and cost-effective method of investigating chemical structures and networks. M-polynomial is a relatively new method for studying chemical networks and structures in molecular graph theory. It displays numerical descriptors in algebraic form and highlights molecular features in the form of a polynomial function. We present a polynomials display of magnesium iodide structure and calculate several M-polynomials in this… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Weighted Average Finite Difference Scheme for the Numerical Solution of Stochastic Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    Dumitru Baleanu1,2,3, Mehran Namjoo4, Ali Mohebbian4, Amin Jajarmi5,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1147-1163, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022403
    Abstract In the present paper, the numerical solution of Itô type stochastic parabolic equation with a time white noise process is imparted based on a stochastic finite difference scheme. At the beginning, an implicit stochastic finite difference scheme is presented for this equation. Some mathematical analyses of the scheme are then discussed. Lastly, to ascertain the efficacy and accuracy of the suggested technique, the numerical results are discussed and compared with the exact solution. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Human-Computer Interaction Using Deep Fusion Model-Based Facial Expression Recognition System

    Saiyed Umer1,*, Ranjeet Kumar Rout2, Shailendra Tiwari3, Ahmad Ali AlZubi4, Jazem Mutared Alanazi4, Kulakov Yurii5
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1165-1185, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023312
    Abstract A deep fusion model is proposed for facial expression-based human-computer Interaction system. Initially, image preprocessing, i.e., the extraction of the facial region from the input image is utilized. Thereafter, the extraction of more discriminative and distinctive deep learning features is achieved using extracted facial regions. To prevent overfitting, in-depth features of facial images are extracted and assigned to the proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) models. Various CNN models are then trained. Finally, the performance of each CNN model is fused to obtain the final decision for the seven basic classes of facial expressions, i.e., fear, disgust, anger, surprise, sadness, happiness,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Finite Element Simulation of Radial Tire Building and Shaping Processes Using an Elasto-Viscoplastic Model

    Yinlong Wang1, Zhao Li2, Ziran Li1,*, Yang Wang1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1187-1208, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022596
    Abstract The comprehensive tire building and shaping processes are investigated through the finite element method (FEM) in this article. The mechanical properties of the uncured rubber from different tire components are investigated through cyclic loading-unloading experiments under different strain rates. Based on the experiments, an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is adopted to describe the mechanical behaviors of the uncured rubber. The distinct mechanical properties, including the stress level, hysteresis and residual strain, of the uncured rubber can all be well characterized. The whole tire building process (including component winding, rubber bladder inflation, component stitching and carcass band folding-back) and the shaping process… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Scheme Library-Based Ant Colony Optimization with 2-Opt Local Search for Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem

    Chuan Wang1,*, Ruoyu Zhu2, Yi Jiang3, Weili Liu4, Sang-Woon Jeon5, Lin Sun2, Hua Wang6
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1209-1228, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022807
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Swarm Intelligence and Applications in Combinatorial Optimization)
    Abstract The dynamic traveling salesman problem (DTSP) is significant in logistics distribution in real-world applications in smart cities, but it is uncertain and difficult to solve. This paper proposes a scheme library-based ant colony optimization (ACO) with a two-optimization (2-opt) strategy to solve the DTSP efficiently. The work is novel and contributes to three aspects: problem model, optimization framework, and algorithm design. Firstly, in the problem model, traditional DTSP models often consider the change of travel distance between two nodes over time, while this paper focuses on a special DTSP model in that the node locations change dynamically over time. Secondly,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bayesian Computation for the Parameters of a Zero-Inflated Cosine Geometric Distribution with Application to COVID-19 Pandemic Data

    Sunisa Junnumtuam, Sa-Aat Niwitpong*, Suparat Niwitpong
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1229-1254, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022098
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Statistical Computing and Data Science)
    Abstract A new three-parameter discrete distribution called the zero-inflated cosine geometric (ZICG) distribution is proposed for the first time herein. It can be used to analyze over-dispersed count data with excess zeros. The basic statistical properties of the new distribution, such as the moment generating function, mean, and variance are presented. Furthermore, confidence intervals are constructed by using the Wald, Bayesian, and highest posterior density (HPD) methods to estimate the true confidence intervals for the parameters of the ZICG distribution. Their efficacies were investigated by using both simulation and real-world data comprising the number of daily COVID-19 positive cases at the… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Bayesian Computation for the Parameters of a Zero-Inflated Cosine Geometric Distribution with Application to COVID-19 Pandemic Data

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Three-Parameter Inverse Weibull Distribution with Medical and Engineering Applications

    Refah Alotaibi1, Hassan Okasha2,3, Hoda Rezk4, Mazen Nassar2,5,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1255-1274, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022623
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Statistical Computing and Data Science)
    Abstract The objective of this article is to provide a novel extension of the conventional inverse Weibull distribution that adds an extra shape parameter to increase its flexibility. This addition is beneficial in a variety of fields, including reliability, economics, engineering, biomedical science, biological research, environmental studies, and finance. For modeling real data, several expanded classes of distributions have been established. The modified alpha power transformed approach is used to implement the new model. The data matches the new inverse Weibull distribution better than the inverse Weibull distribution and several other competing models. It appears to be a distribution designed to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic-Based Keyword Matching DBSCAN in IoT for Discovering Adjacent Clusters

    Byoungwook Kim1, Hong-Jun Jang2,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1275-1294, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022446
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence for Mobile Edge Computing in IoT)
    Abstract As location information of numerous Internet of Thing (IoT) devices can be recognized through IoT sensor technology, the need for technology to efficiently analyze spatial data is increasing. One of the famous algorithms for classifying dense data into one cluster is Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN). Existing DBSCAN research focuses on efficiently finding clusters in numeric data or categorical data. In this paper, we propose the novel problem of discovering a set of adjacent clusters among the cluster results derived for each keyword in the keyword-based DBSCAN algorithm. The existing DBSCAN algorithm has a problem in that… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Genetic-Based Keyword Matching DBSCAN in IoT for Discovering Adjacent Clusters

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Theoretical Investigation of the SARS-CoV-2 Model via Fractional Order Epidemiological Model

    Tahir Khan1, Rahman Ullah1, Thabet Abdeljawad2,3,*, Manar A. Alqudah4, Faizullah Faiz5
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1295-1313, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022177
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Numerical Methods for Fractional Differential Equations)
    Abstract We propose a theoretical study investigating the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) reported in Wuhan City of China in 2019. We develop a mathematical model based on the novel corona virus's characteristics and then use fractional calculus to fractionalize it. Various fractional order epidemic models have been formulated and analyzed using a number of iterative and numerical approaches while the complications arise due to singular kernel. We use the well-known Caputo-Fabrizio operator for the purposes of fictionalization because this operator is based on the non-singular kernel. Moreover, to analyze the existence and uniqueness, we will use the well-known fixed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Detailed Mathematical Analysis of the Vaccination Model for COVID-19

    Abeer S. Alnahdi1,*, Mdi B. Jeelani1, Hanan A. Wahash2, Mansour A. Abdulwasaa3,4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1315-1343, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023694
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Numerical Methods for Fractional Differential Equations)
    Abstract This study aims to structure and evaluate a new COVID-19 model which predicts vaccination effect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) under Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo (ABC) fractional derivatives. On the statistical aspect, we analyze the collected statistical data of fully vaccinated people from June 01, 2021, to February 15, 2022. Then we apply the Eviews program to find the best model for predicting the vaccination against this pandemic, based on daily series data from February 16, 2022, to April 15, 2022. The results of data analysis show that the appropriate model is autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA (1, 1, 2), and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    IoMT-Cloud Task Scheduling Using AI

    Adedoyin A. Hussain1,2,*, Fadi Al-Turjman3,4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1345-1369, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.022783
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-inspired Computer Modelling: Theories and Applications in Engineering and Sciences)
    Abstract The internet of medical things (IoMT) empowers patients to get adaptable, and virtualized gear over the internet. Task scheduling is the most fundamental problem in the IoMT-cloud since cloud execution commonly relies on it. Thus, a proposition is being made for a distinct scheduling technique to suitably meet these solicitations. To manage the scheduling issue, an artificial intelligence (AI) method known as a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed. The proposed AI method will be justified by contrasting it with other traditional optimization and AI scheduling approaches. The CloudSim is utilized to quantify its effect on various parameters like time,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Simulation of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic Systems with Caputo Fractional Derivative

    Dandan Dai1, Xiaoyu Li2, Zhiyuan Li2, Wei Zhang3, Yulan Wang2,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1371-1392, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022323
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Fractal-Fractional Models for Engineering & Sciences)
    Abstract Although some numerical methods of the fractional-order chaotic systems have been announced, high-precision numerical methods have always been the direction that researchers strive to pursue. Based on this problem, this paper introduces a high-precision numerical approach. Some complex dynamic behavior of fractional-order Lorenz chaotic systems are shown by using the present method. We observe some novel dynamic behavior in numerical experiments which are unlike any that have been previously discovered in numerical experiments or theoretical studies. We investigate the influence of , , on the numerical solution of fractional-order Lorenz chaotic systems. The simulation results of integer order are in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Novel Analysis of Two Kinds Hybrid Models in Ferro Martial Inserting Variable Lorentz Force Past a Heated Disk: An Implementation of Finite Element Method

    Enran Hou1, Umar Nazir2, Samaira Naz3, Muhammad Sohail2,4,*, Muhammad Nadeem5, Jung Rye Lee6, Choonkil Park7,*, Ahmed M. Galal8,9
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1393-1411, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022500
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Fractal-Fractional Models for Engineering & Sciences)
    Abstract In this article, the rheology of Ferro-fluid over an axisymmetric heated disc with a variable magnetic field by considering the dispersion of hybrid nanoparticles is considered. The flow is assumed to be produced by the stretching of a rotating heated disc. The contribution of variable thermophysical properties is taken to explore the momentum, mass and thermal transportation. The concept of boundary layer mechanism is engaged to reduce the complex problem into a simpler one in the form of coupled partial differential equations system. The complex coupled PDEs are converted into highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations system (ODEs) and the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multidisciplinary Modeling and Optimization Method of Remote Sensing Satellite Parameters Based on SysML-CEA

    Changyong Chu1,2,*, Chengfang Yin1, Shuo Shi1, Shaohui Su1, Chang Chen1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1413-1434, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022395
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Structural Optimization)
    Abstract To enhance the efficiency of system modeling and optimization in the conceptual design stage of satellite parameters, a system modeling and optimization method based on System Modeling Language and Co-evolutionary Algorithm is proposed. At first, the objectives of satellite mission and optimization problems are clarified, and a design matrix of discipline structure is constructed to process the coupling relationship of design variables and constraints of the orbit, payload, power and quality disciplines. In order to solve the problem of increasing non-linearity and coupling between these disciplines while using a standard collaborative optimization algorithm, an improved genetic algorithm is proposed and… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Multidisciplinary Modeling and Optimization Method of Remote Sensing Satellite Parameters Based on SysML-CEA

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Explicit Isogeometric Topology Optimization Method with Suitably Graded Truncated Hierarchical B-Spline

    Haoran Zhu, Xinhao Gao, Aodi Yang, Shuting Wang, Xianda Xie, Tifan Xiong*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1435-1456, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023454
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advance of the Isogeometric Boundary Element Method and its Applications)
    Abstract This work puts forward an explicit isogeometric topology optimization (ITO) method using moving morphable components (MMC), which takes the suitably graded truncated hierarchical B-Spline based isogeometric analysis as the solver of physical unknown (SGTHB-ITO-MMC). By applying properly basis graded constraints to the hierarchical mesh of truncated hierarchical B-splines (THB), the convergence and robustness of the SGTHB-ITOMMC are simultaneously improved and the tiny holes occurred in optimized structure are eliminated, due to the improved accuracy around the explicit structural boundaries. Moreover, an efficient computational method is developed for the topological description functions (TDF) of MMC under the admissible hierarchical mesh, which… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Explicit Isogeometric Topology Optimization Method with Suitably Graded Truncated Hierarchical B-Spline

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    AWK-TIS: An Improved AK-IS Based on Whale Optimization Algorithm and Truncated Importance Sampling for Reliability Analysis

    Qiang Qin1,2,*, Xiaolei Cao1, Shengpeng Zhang1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1457-1480, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.022078
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computer-Aided Structural Integrity and Safety Assessment)
    Abstract In this work, an improved active kriging method based on the AK-IS and truncated importance sampling (TIS) method is proposed to efficiently evaluate structural reliability. The novel method called AWK-TIS is inspired by AK-IS and RBF-GA previously published in the literature. The innovation of the AWK-TIS is that TIS is adopted to lessen the sample pool size significantly, and the whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is employed to acquire the optimal Kriging model and the most probable point (MPP). To verify the performance of the AWK-TIS method for structural reliability, four numerical cases which are utilized as benchmarks in literature and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computational Modeling of Intergranular Crack Propagation in an Intermetallic Compound Layer

    Tong An1,2,*, Rui Zhou1,2, Fei Qin1,2,*, Pei Chen1,2, Yanwei Dai1,2, Yanpeng Gong1,2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1481-1502, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.022475
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Mechanical Reliability of Advanced Materials and Structures for Harsh Applications)
    Abstract A micromechanical model is presented to study the initiation and propagation of microcracks of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in solder joints. The effects of the grain aggregate morphology, the grain boundary defects and the sensitivity of the various cohesive zone parameters in predicting the overall mechanical response are investigated. The overall strength is predominantly determined by the weak grain interfaces; both the grain aggregate morphology and the weak grain interfaces control the crack configuration; the different normal and tangential strengths of grain interfaces result in different intergranular cracking behaviors and play a critical role in determining the macroscopic mechanical response of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Earth Pressure of the Trapdoor Problem Using Three-Dimensional Discrete Element Method

    Qizhi Chen1, Chuli Xu1, Baoping Zou1,*, Zhanyou Luo2, Changjie Xu3, Xu Long4,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1503-1520, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022823
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Mechanical Reliability of Advanced Materials and Structures for Harsh Applications)
    Abstract Load transformation from the yielding part of the soil to the adjacent part is known as the soil arching effect, which plays an important role in the design of various geotechnical infrastructures. Terzaghi’s trapdoor test was an important milestone in the development of theories on soil arching. The research on earth pressure of the trapdoor problem is presented in this paper using the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM). Five 3D trapdoor models with different heights are established by 3D DEM software PFC 3D. The variation of earth pressure on the trapdoor with the downward movement of the trapdoor, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quantifying Solid Solution Strengthening in Nickel-Based Superalloys via High-Throughput Experiment and Machine Learning

    Zihang Li1,#, Zexin Wang1,#, Zi Wang2, Zijun Qin1, Feng Liu1, Liming Tan1,*, Xiaochao Jin3,*, Xueling Fan3, Lan Huang1
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1521-1538, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021639
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Trends in Thermal Barrier Coatings for Turbine Blades: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment)
    Abstract Solid solution strengthening (SSS) is one of the main contributions to the desired tensile properties of nickel-based superalloys for turbine blades and disks. The value of SSS can be calculated by using Fleischer’s and Labusch’s theories, while the model parameters are incorporated without fitting to experimental data of complex alloys. In this work, four diffusion multiples consisting of multicomponent alloys and pure Ni are prepared and characterized. The composition and microhardness of single γ phase regions in samples are used to quantify the SSS. Then, Fleischer’s and Labusch’s theories are examined based on high-throughput experiments, respectively. The fitted solid solution… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Observer-Based Control for a Cable-Driven Aerial Manipulator under Lumped Disturbances

    Li Ding, Yong Yao*, Rui Ma
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1539-1558, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023003
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Intelligent Decision and Intelligent Control with Applications in Smart City)
    Abstract With the increasing demand for interactive aerial operations, the application of aerial manipulators is becoming more promising. However, there are a few critical problems on how to improve the energetic efficiency and pose control of the aerial manipulator for practical application. In this paper, a novel cable-driven aerial manipulator used for remote water sampling is proposed and then its rigid-flexible coupling dynamics model is constructed which takes joint flexibility into account. To achieve high precision joint position tracking under lumped disturbances, a newly controller, which consists of three parts: linear extended state observer, adaptive super-twisting strategy, and fractional-order nonsingular terminal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Road Segmentation Model Based on Mixture of the Convolutional Neural Network and the Transformer Network

    Fenglei Xu#, Haokai Zhao#, Fuyuan Hu*, Mingfei Shen, Yifei Wu
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1559-1570, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023217
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Intelligent Decision and Intelligent Control with Applications in Smart City)
    Abstract Convolutional neural networks (CNN) based on U-shaped structures and skip connections play a pivotal role in various image segmentation tasks. Recently, Transformer starts to lead new trends in the image segmentation task. Transformer layer can construct the relationship between all pixels, and the two parties can complement each other well. On the basis of these characteristics, we try to combine Transformer pipeline and convolutional neural network pipeline to gain the advantages of both. The image is put into the U-shaped encoder-decoder architecture based on empirical combination of self-attention and convolution, in which skip connections are utilized for local-global semantic feature… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Interpretable CNN for the Segmentation of the Left Ventricle in Cardiac MRI by Real-Time Visualization

    Jun Liu1, Geng Yuan2, Changdi Yang2, Houbing Song3, Liang Luo4,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1571-1587, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023195
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Models of Computation: Specification, Implementation and Challenges)
    Abstract The interpretability of deep learning models has emerged as a compelling area in artificial intelligence research. The safety criteria for medical imaging are highly stringent, and models are required for an explanation. However, existing convolutional neural network solutions for left ventricular segmentation are viewed in terms of inputs and outputs. Thus, the interpretability of CNNs has come into the spotlight. Since medical imaging data are limited, many methods to fine-tune medical imaging models that are popular in transfer models have been built using massive public ImageNet datasets by the transfer learning method. Unfortunately, this generates many unreliable parameters and makes… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Novel Distance Measures on Hesitant Fuzzy Sets Based on Equal-Probability Transformation and Their Application in Decision Making on Intersection Traffic Control

    Fangwei Zhang1,2, Yi Zhao3,*, Jun Ye4, Shuhong Wang5, Jingyi Hu6
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1589-1602, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022431
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Decision making Modeling, Methods and Applications of Advanced Fuzzy Theory in Engineering and Science)
    Abstract The purpose of this study is to reduce the uncertainty in the calculation process on hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs). The innovation of this study is to unify the cardinal numbers of hesitant fuzzy elements (HFEs) in a special way. Firstly, a probability density function is assigned for any given HFE. Thereafter, equal-probability transformation is introduced to transform HFEs with different cardinal numbers on the condition into the same probability density function. The characteristic of this transformation is that the higher the consistency of the membership degrees in HFEs, the higher the credibility of the mentioned membership degrees is, then, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Two-Sided Stable Matching Decision-Making Method Considering Matching Intention under a Hesitant Fuzzy Environment

    Qi Yue1,2,*, Zhibin Deng2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1603-1623, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022956
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Decision making Modeling, Methods and Applications of Advanced Fuzzy Theory in Engineering and Science)
    Abstract In this paper, a stable two-sided matching (TSM) method considering the matching intention of agents under a hesitant fuzzy environment is proposed. The method uses a hesitant fuzzy element (HFE) as its basis. First, the HFE preference matrix is transformed into the normalized HFE preference matrix. On this basis, the distance and the projection of the normalized HFEs on positive and negative ideal solutions are calculated. Then, the normalized HFEs are transformed into agent satisfactions. Considering the stable matching constraints, a multiobjective programming model with the objective of maximizing the satisfactions of two-sided agents is constructed. Based on the agent… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analyzing Ethereum Smart Contract Vulnerabilities at Scale Based on Inter-Contract Dependency

    Qiuyun Lyu1, Chenhao Ma1, Yanzhao Shen2, Shaopeng Jiao3, Yipeng Sun1, Liqin Hu1,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1625-1647, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021562
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Trends on Blockchain: Architecture and Dapp Ecosystem)
    Abstract Smart contracts running on public blockchains are permissionless and decentralized, attracting both developers and malicious participants. Ethereum, the world’s largest decentralized application platform on which more than 40 million smart contracts are running, is frequently challenged by smart contract vulnerabilities. What’s worse, since the homogeneity of a wide range of smart contracts and the increase in inter-contract dependencies, a vulnerability in a certain smart contract could affect a large number of other contracts in Ethereum. However, little is known about how vulnerable contracts affect other on-chain contracts and which contracts can be affected. Thus, we first present the contract dependency… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Topological Aspects of Dendrimers via Connection-Based Descriptors

    Muhammad Javaid1, Ahmed Alamer2, Aqsa Sattar1,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1649-1667, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022832
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Resolvability Parameters and their Applications)
    Abstract Topological indices (TIs) have been practiced for distinct wide-ranging physicochemical applications, especially used to characterize and model the chemical structures of various molecular compounds such as dendrimers, nanotubes and neural networks with respect to their certain properties such as solubility, chemical stability and low cytotoxicity. Dendrimers are prolonged artificially synthesized or amalgamated natural macromolecules with a sequential layer of branches enclosing a central core. A present-day trend in mathematical and computational chemistry is the characterization of molecular structure by applying topological approaches, including numerical graph invariants. Among topological descriptors, Zagreb connection indices (ZCIs) have much importance. This manuscript involves the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Existence of Approximate Solutions to Nonlinear Lorenz System under Caputo-Fabrizio Derivative

    Khursheed J. Ansari1, Mustafa Inc2,3,4,*, K. H. Mahmoud5,*, Eiman6
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1669-1684, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022971
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Applications of Fractional Operators in Modeling Real-world Problems: Theory, Computation, and Applications)
    Abstract In this article, we developed sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of an approximate solution to a nonlinear system of Lorenz equations under Caputo-Fabrizio fractional order derivative (CFFD). The required results about the existence and uniqueness of a solution are derived via the fixed point approach due to Banach and Krassnoselskii. Also, we enriched our work by establishing a stable result based on the Ulam-Hyers (U-H) concept. Also, the approximate solution is computed by using a hybrid method due to the Laplace transform and the Adomian decomposition method. We computed a few terms of the required solution through the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    On Some Ev-Degree and Ve-Degree Dependent Indices of Benes Network and Its Derived Classes

    Wenhu Wang1,2,3, Hibba Arshad4, Asfand Fahad4,*, Imran Javaid4
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1685-1699, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.023563
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Aspects of Computational Algorithms of Graphical Network in Fixed Point Theory)
    Abstract One of the most recent developments in the field of graph theory is the analysis of networks such as Butterfly networks, Benes networks, Interconnection networks, and David-derived networks using graph theoretic parameters. The topological indices (TIs) have been widely used as graph invariants among various graph theoretic tools. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR) need the use of TIs. Different structure-based parameters, such as the degree and distance of vertices in graphs, contribute to the determination of the values of TIs. Among other recently introduced novelties, the classes of ev-degree and ve-degree dependent TIs have… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Topology Optimization of Stiffener Layout Design for Box Type Load-Bearing Component under Thermo-Mechanical Coupling

    Zhaohui Yang1,2,*, Tianhua Xiong1, Fei Du1,*, Baotong Li3
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1701-1718, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.022758
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Thermofluid Topology Optimization)
    Abstract The structure optimization design under thermo-mechanical coupling is a difficult problem in the topology optimization field. An adaptive growth algorithm has become a more effective approach for structural topology optimization. This paper proposed a topology optimization method by an adaptive growth algorithm for the stiffener layout design of box type load-bearing components under thermo-mechanical coupling. Based on the stiffness diffusion theory, both the load stiffness matrix and the heat conduction stiffness matrix of the stiffener are spread at the same time to make sure the stiffener grows freely and obtain an optimal stiffener layout design. Meanwhile, the objectives of optimization… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computational Modeling of Reaction-Diffusion COVID-19 Model Having Isolated Compartment

    Muhammad Shoaib Arif1,2,*, Kamaleldin Abodayeh1, Asad Ejaz2
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1719-1743, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022235
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Computational Biology-I)
    Abstract Cases of COVID-19 and its variant omicron are raised all across the world. The most lethal form and effect of COVID-19 are the omicron version, which has been reported in tens of thousands of cases daily in numerous nations. Following WHO (World health organization) records on 30 December 2021, the cases of COVID-19 were found to be maximum for which boarding individuals were found 1,524,266, active, recovered, and discharge were found to be 82,402 and 34,258,778, respectively. While there were 160,989 active cases, 33,614,434 cured cases, 456,386 total deaths, and 605,885,769 total samples tested. So far, 1,438,322,742 individuals have been… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Deep Learning Approach to Mesh Segmentation

    Abubakar Sulaiman Gezawa1, Qicong Wang1,2, Haruna Chiroma3, Yunqi Lei1,*
    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1745-1763, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021351
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Machine Learning for Big Data Analytics in Natural Language Processing)
    Abstract In the shape analysis community, decomposing a 3D shape into meaningful parts has become a topic of interest. 3D model segmentation is largely used in tasks such as shape deformation, shape partial matching, skeleton extraction, shape correspondence, shape annotation and texture mapping. Numerous approaches have attempted to provide better segmentation solutions; however, the majority of the previous techniques used handcrafted features, which are usually focused on a particular attribute of 3D objects and so are difficult to generalize. In this paper, we propose a three-stage approach for using Multi-view recurrent neural network to automatically segment a 3D shape into visually… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Deep Learning Approach to Mesh Segmentation

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