Vol.16, No.2, 2019-Table of Contents
  • Systems Neuroprotective Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke
  • Abstract Ischemic stroke, although causing brain infarction and neurological deficits, can activate innate neuroprotective mechanisms, including regional mechanisms within the ischemic brain and distant mechanisms from non-ischemic organs such as the liver, spleen, and pancreas, supporting neuronal survival, confining brain infarction, and alleviating neurological deficits. Both regional and distant mechanisms are defined as systems neuroprotective mechanisms. The regional neuroprotective mechanisms involve release and activation of neuroprotective factors such as adenosine and bradykinin, inflammatory responses, expression of growth factors such as nerve growth factors and neurotrophins, and activation and differentiation of resident neural stem cells to neurons and glial cells. The distant… More
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  • Traction Force Measurements of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Reveal a Motor-Clutch Behavior
  • Abstract The contractile behavior of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the aorta is an important determinant of growth, remodeling, and homeostasis. However, quantitative values of SMC basal tone have never been characterized precisely on individual SMCs. Therefore, to address this lack, we developed an in vitro technique based on Traction Force Microscopy (TFM). Aortic SMCs from a human lineage at low passages (4-7) were cultured 2 days in conditions promoting the development of their contractile apparatus and seeded on hydrogels of varying elastic modulus (1, 4, 12 and 25 kPa) with embedded fluorescent microspheres. After complete adhesion, SMCs were artificially detached… More
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  • Experimental Characterization of MCF-10A Normal Cells Using AFM: Comparison with MCF-7 Cancer Cells
  • Abstract The mechanical properties of single cells have been recently identified as the basis of an emerging approach in medical applications since they are closely related to the biological processes of cells and human health conditions. The problem in hand is how to measure mechanical properties in order to obtain them more accurately and applicably. Some of the cell’s properties such as elasticity module and adhesion have been measured before using various methods; nevertheless, comprehensive tests for two healthy and cancerous cells have not been performed simultaneously. As a Nanoscale device, AFM has been used for some biological cells, however for… More
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  • An Isogeometric Analysis Computational Platform for Material Transport Simulation in Complex Neurite Networks
  • Abstract Neurons exhibit remarkably complex geometry in their neurite networks. So far, how materials are transported in the complex geometry for survival and function of neurons remains an unanswered question. Answering this question is fundamental to understanding the physiology and disease of neurons. Here, we have developed an isogeometric analysis (IGA) based platform for material transport simulation in neurite networks. We modeled the transport process by reaction-diffusion-transport equations and represented geometry of the networks using truncated hierarchical tricubic B-splines (THB-spline3D). We solved the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain the velocity field of material transport in the networks. We then solved the transport… More
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  • Sanguinarine Decreases Cell Stiffness and Traction Force and Inhibits the Reactivity of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells in Culture
  • Abstract Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is the cardinal character of asthma, which involves the biomechanical properties such as cell stiffness and traction force of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Therefore, these biomechanical properties comprise logical targets of therapy. β2-adrenergic agonist is currently the mainstream drug to target ASMCs in clinical practice for treating asthma. However, this drug is known for side effects such as desensitization and non-responsiveness in some patients. Therefore, it is desirable to search for new drug agents to be alternative of β2-adrenergic agonist. In this context, sanguinarine, a natural product derived from plants such as bloodroots, that has been… More
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  • Convolution Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for Automatic Segmentation of Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography
  • Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with deteriorating atherosclerotic plaques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently developed intravascular imaging technique with high resolution approximately 10 microns and could provide accurate quantification of coronary plaque morphology. However, tissue segmentation of OCT images in clinic is still mainly performed manually by physicians which is time consuming and subjective. To overcome these limitations, two automatic segmentation methods for intracoronary OCT image based on support vector machine (SVM) and convolutional neural network (CNN) were performed to identify the plaque region and characterize plaque components. In vivo IVUS and OCT coronary plaque data from 5… More
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