Home / Journals / MCB / Vol.8, No.4, 2011
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Alteration of Viscoelastic Properties is Associated with a Change in Cytoskeleton Components of Ageing Chondrocytes from Rabbit Knee Articular Cartilage

    Wangping Duan, Lei Wei, Juntao Zhang, Yongzhuang Hao, Chunjiang Li, Hao Li, Qi Li, Quanyou Zhang, Weiyi Chen, Xiaochun Wei∗,§
    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 253-274, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.253
    Abstract The cytoskeleton network is believed to play an important role in the biomechanical properties of the chondrocyte. Ours and other laboratories have demonstrated that chondrocytes exhibit a viscoelastic solid creep behavior in vitro and that viscoelastic properties decrease in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. In this study, we aimed to understand whether the alteration of viscoelastic properties is associated with changes in cytoskeleton components of ageing chondrocytes from rabbit knee articular cartilage. Three age groups were used for this study: young (2-months-old, N=23), adult (8-months-old, N=23), and old (31-months-old, N=23) rabbit groups. Cartilage structure and proteoglycan and type II collagen content were determined… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structure - Function Relationships in the Stem Cell's Mechanical World A: Seeding Protocols as a Means to Control Shape and Fate of Live Stem Cells

    Joshua A. Zimmermann*, Melissa L. Knothe Tate∗,†,‡
    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 275-296, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.275
    Abstract Shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function at the cell scale. Here we hypothesize that seeding density and protocol affect the form and function of live embryonic murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their nuclei. First, the imperative for study of live cells was demonstrated in studies showing changes in cell nucleus shape that were attributable to fixation per se. Hence, we compared live cell and nuclear volume and shape between groups of a model MSC line (C3H10T1/2) seeded at, or proliferated from 5,000 cells/cm2 to one of three target densities to achieve targeted development contexts. Cell… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structure - Function Relationships in the Stem Cell's Mechanical World B: Emergent Anisotropy of the Cytoskeleton Correlates to Volume and Shape Changing Stress Exposure

    Hana Chang*, Melissa L. Knothe Tate∗,†,‡
    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 297-318, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.297
    Abstract In the preceding study (Part A), we showed that prescribed seeding conditions as well as seeding density can be used to subject multipotent stem cells (MSCs) to volume changing stresses and that changes in volume of the cell are associated with changes in shape, but not volume, of the cell nucleus. In the current study, we aim to control the mechanical milieu of live cells using these prescribed seeding conditions concomitant to delivery of shape changing stresses via fluid flow, while observing adaptation of the cytoskeleton, a major cellular transducer that modulates cell shape, stiffness and remodeling. We hypothesize that… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Cardioprotective Mechanisms Activated in Response to Myocardial Ischemia

    Shu Q. Liu∗,†, Brandon J. Tefft*, Di Zhang*, Derek Roberts*, Daniel J. Schuster*, Allison Wu*
    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 319-338, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.319
    Abstract Myocardial ischemia, a disorder causing myocardial infarction and malfunction, can activate various adaptive mechanisms that protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. During the early hours post myocardial ischemia, injured cardiac cells can release several molecules, including adenosine, opioids, and bradykinin, which promote myocardial survival by activating the G protein signaling pathways. During a later phase about several days, myocardial ischemia induces upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, including VEGF, ILGF, HGF, and SDF-1, in the injured myocardium, contributing to cardioprotection. In addition to the injured heart, the liver participates in cardioprotection. In response to myocardial ischemia, the liver upregulates and releases… More >

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