Author's Instruction

JRM: Journal of Renewable Materials
2164-6325 Journal of Renewable Materials (printed)
2164-6341 Journal of Renewable Materials (online)

Manuscripts submitted for publication must be prepared according to the guidelines given below.

Cover Letter
Templates
General Format of Articles
Declarations
Galley Proofs
English Editing Service
Publication Ethics and Professional Standards
Authorship and Contribution
Conflicts of Interest
Copyright and Licensing
Editorial Procedure and Peer Review
Corrections and Retractions
Post-publication Discussions and Corrections
Investigations and Sanctions


Template in MS Word: sample.doc.

This guideline is intended to assist authors as they prepare their manuscripts. To avoid any delay and time-consuming restructuring, we ask and encourage authors to read the guidelines before writing the manuscript.

Tech Science Press publishes review and research articles. All papers must be written in English, and follow a clear, concise style. Our language editors may have to check the language and grammar of your submitted manuscript, and make editorial changes if deemed necessary.

The corresponding author of a manuscript is responsible for submission and all subsequent correspondences on behalf of all the authors that are included in the m. All published papers should contain adequate information and data for readers to replicate the result.

1. Cover Letter

A submitted manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter. The cover letter must clearly state that the manuscript is an original work with its own merit, has not been previously published in whole or in part, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. It should also include statements clearly indicating that all authors have read the final manuscript, have approved the submission to the journal, and have accepted full responsibilities pertaining to the manuscript’s delivery and contents. If there are any ethical, copyright, disclosure issues that come with the manuscript, please reveal them in the cover letter. In the cover letter, authors need to declare that there is no conflict of interests or disclose all the conflicts of interest regarding the manuscript submitted.

2. Templates

Authors are encouraged to use the Microsoft Word template (Sample-Tsp).

3. General Format of Articles

3.1. General Style

  • The paper size is US Letter (8.5″ × 11″ or 21.59 cm × 27.94 cm) All margins — top, bottom, left, and right — are set to 1 (2.54 cm).
  • Use Times New Roman 11-point size for the main body of the paper, single spacing, except for the heading as outlined in section 3.4.
  • The paper must be in a single column format.
  • Use British English or American English spellings throughout your manuscript, but not both.
  • Use 2-character indentation on the first line of each new paragraph.
  • Do not use page breaks or multiple returns between Sections.
  • Do not insert page numbers or line numbers.

3.2. Manuscripts

3.2.1. Title and Author Information

  • The title of the paper should be in bold, Times New Romans, 14-point, at the top center of the title page. Use capital letter on each word of the title.
  • Provide full names of all authors and their affiliations. The author line should be centered.
  • Authors should be numbered regard to their affiliations. There should be no space between the author name and the number.
  • Corresponding author should be marked *.

3.2.2.  Abstract

  • Abstract of a research paper should be 200-400 words, and 150-300 words for review paper.
  • Abstract should be centered, and with indentation of 1 inch (2.54 cm).
  • The abstract should be in one continuous paragraph without reference numbers.
  • All abbreviations should be defined in full unless the abbreviation appears more than once in the abstract.

3.2.3. Keywords:

  • Three keywords are the minimum. Use a comma to divide each keyword.
  • Keywords should be centered, and with indentation of 1 inch (2.54 cm).
  • Each keyword except the first one should be lowercase unless an uppercase letter is necessary.

3.3. Headings

In the main body of the paper, three different levels of headings (for sections, subsections, and sub-subsections) may be used.

  • The section of abstract should not be numbered. Subsequent sections should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numbers, starting from 1.
  • Level one headings for sections should be in bold, and be flushed to the left, e.g., 1., 2., ….
  • Level two headings for subsections should be bold-italic, and be flushed to the left. Level two headings should be numbered after the level one heading, e.g., 1.1., 1.2.,….
  • Level three headings should be italic; and be flushed to the left, e.g., 1.1.1., 1.1.2.,….
  • Use 12-pound before paragraph distance and 3-pound after paragraph distance.
  • Do not use page breaks or multiple returns between sections.

3.4. Units and Symbols

  • Units of measurement should be used concisely according to the International System of Units (SI). All units should be converted to SI units whenever possible.
  • There should be a space between the unit and Arabic number: 5 mm NOT 5mm.
  • Please use Arabic number and relevant unit in the manuscript: 5 kg NOT five kilograms or 5 kilograms or five kg.
  • Do not use hyphen/dash or any connector symbol between the value and its unit: 5 kg NOT 5-kg.
  • Please clarify all units during a calculation or a mathematical relationship: 3 cm5 cm NOT 35 cm, 123 g±2 g or (123±2) g NOT 123±2 g, 70%-85% NOT 70-85%.
  • Greek letters must be inserted using the correct Greek symbol (using Times, Helvetica or Symbol font), NOT written in full, i.e., alpha: α; beta: β, ß, (available in Times and Helvetica); and gamma: γ, etc.

  • Abbreviations

    Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they appear in the abstract, main text, and figure or table captions and used consistently after that. Accepted abbreviations for statistical parameters are P, n, SD, SEM, df, ns, ANOVA, t.


    Equations

    If you are using MS Word, please use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on. Equations should be editable by the editorial office and not appear in a picture format.


    Statistical Analysis

    Appropriate statistical treatment of the data is essential. When the statistical analysis has been performed, the name of the statistical test used, the n number for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, the alpha level and the actual p-value for each test should be provided

    3.5. Figures and Tables

    3.5.1. Figures

    • Figures should be centered, and should have a figure caption placed underneath.
    • The size of figures is measured in centimeters and inches. Please prepare your figures at the size within 17 cm (6.70 in) in width and 20 cm (7.87 in) in height.
    • Figures should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced.
    • Figures should have no frames and borders.
    • In the main text, where reference the figures, use Fig. followed by a space and the figure number, e.g., Fig. 1.
    • The digital format JPEG, PNG, TIFF are acceptable, with >300 dpi resolution.
    • Figures should be in the original version, should not be stretched or distorted.
    • Do not use Photoshop or such software to change the color or appearance of figures.

    Figure 1: Some functions of x

    3.5.2. Figure Captions and Labels

    • Figures should have relevant captions but should not contain the same information which is already described in the main text.
    • Figure (diagrams and photographs) captions should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers.
    • One-line Caption should be centered in the column, e.g., Figure 1. The text caption ….
    • The text caption with more than one line should use justified alignment.
    • The size of labels should be no smaller than 8-point and no larger than the font size of the main text.
    • Figure labels must be sized in proportion to the image, sharp, and legible.
    • Labels must be saved using standard fonts (Arial, Helvetica or Symbol font) and should be of the same font and size in all figures in one paper.
    • All labels should be in black, and should not be overlapped, faded, broken or distorted.
    • The first letter of each phrase, NOT each word, must be capitalized.

    3.5.3. Copyright of Figures

    • If a figure or table has been published previously—even by an author of the manuscript being submitted for review,the copyright holder’s written acknowledgment and permission for its re-use are often required.

    3.5.4. Tables

    • Tables should be placed in the text after the point where they are referenced, and should be consistent with the main text.
    • Tables should be centered and should have a title placed above.
    • Table titles must be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers.
    • One-line table title should be centered and multiple-line title should use justified alignment.
    • Use Times New Roman, font size smaller than 12 for table titles.
    • Titles should be centered in the format “Table 1. The text …”, e.g., Tab. 1.
    • Table notes should be aligned with the left table frame.
    • Where reference the Tables, please use abbreviation “Tab.”. followed by the number, e.g., Tab. 1

    Table 1: Table caption

    1

    2

    3

    11

    12

    13

    21

    22

    23

    3.6. Equations and Mathematical Expressions

    3.6.1. In-line style

    • In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, .
    • In-line equations/expressions should not be numbered.
    • In-line equations/expressions should be use as same/similar size font as the main text.

    3.6.2. Display style

    • Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text.
    • Equations should be flushed to the left margin of the column.
    • Equations should be editable.
    • Equations should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers. See Eq. 1 for an example. The number should be right aligned.
  • Equations should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers. See Eq. 1 for an example. The number should be right aligned.

         (1)

3.7. Citations

  • Please cite references by number in parentheses in the main text, e.g., [1], [2], [3]…
  • If the cited references are consecutive more than 2, please see the example, [1-3], [4-6].
  • No citation to the page number should be used.
  • Citation to the figures should be in Section 5.1. Citation to the tables should be in Section 5.3.

3.8. References

  • All references should be in font size 10 and listed at the end of the paper
  • References should be organized in order of citation in the main.
  • Use full name of journal cited in reference e.g., Computational Mechanics, use italic font, followed by a comma before the volume, issue and page number.
  • Keep DOI number when you have the data aforementioned.
  • Based on our particular style, the first six authors will be listed as they appear. When more than six authors are listed, keep the first six authors and followed by et al.
  • Personal communications should be avoided.
  • Non-English references should not be included in the Reference list. The entire manuscript cited must be in English.

Reference examples:

  • Atluri, S. N. (2004). A four-node hybrid assumed-strain finite element for laminated composite plates. Location: Tech Science Press.
  • Atluri, S. N., Han, Z., Shen, S. (2003). Meshless Local Patrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approaches for weaklysingular traction & displacement boundary integral equations. Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 4(5), 507-517.
  • Atluri, S. N., Zhu, T. (1998). A new meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach in computational mechanics. Computational Mechanics, 22, 117-127.
  • Atluri, S. N. (2004). The meshless method (MLPG) for domain & BIE discretizations. http://www.techscience.com/books/mlpg_atluri.html.
  • Darius, H. (2014). Savant syndrome-theories and empirical findings (Ph.D. Thesis). University of Turku, Finland.
  • Zhao, S., Yang, Z. C., Zhou, X. G., Ling, X. Z., Mora, L. S. et al. (2014). Design, fabrication, characterization and simulation of PIP-SiC/SiC composites. Computers, Materials & Continua, 42(2), 103-124.
  • 4. Declarations

    When submitted, manuscripts should, where appropriate, contain the following sections near the end, before the list of references:

    Acknowledgments

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in this section. 

    Funding statement

    Authors must divulge all sources of funding for the research reported, specifying the role of each in the design of the study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and the composition of the manuscript. Specifically, the full name of each source of funding should be provided accompanied by any associated grant numbers in square brackets. 

    Availability of data and materials

    This statement—which is not required for review articles—should make clear how readers can access the data used in the study and explain why any unavailable data cannot be released. 

    Conflicts of Interest

    Authors must declare all potential conflicts of interest; if they have none to declare, they should state plainly, “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.” 

    5. Galley Proofs

    Galley proofs will be sent to the corresponding author in PDF format for immediate review. A printed copy of the PDF should be used to make minor corrections; alterations of the original text should be avoided. The corrected PDF proof should be scanned and emailed—again, as a PDF file—to the JRM Production Office, jrm@techscience.com.

    6. English Editing Service

    Clear and concise language enables both the journal editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of your manuscript. In order to facilitate a proper peer review process and ensure that submissions are judged exclusively on academic merit, Tech Science Press strongly encourages authors to prepare the language of their manuscripts with the utmost care.

    If you are an author whose native language is not English—or you have any concerns regarding the language quality of your manuscript—we recommend having your manuscript professionally edited by a qualified English-speaking researcher in your field prior to submission.Tech Science Press has partnered with LetPub as an option to provide this service at a 5% discount to all our authors.

    Please use the following Coupon Code to receive the special 5% discount when you check out with LetPub: TSP5D

    LetPub: https://www.letpub.com/

    7. Publication Ethics and Professional Standards

    Ethical and Professional Standards

    Research Involving Plants

    Experimental research on plants (cultivated and wild), including the collection of plant materials, must be conducted in compliance with applicable institutional, national, and international guidelines. We therefore recommend that authors consult the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    For each submitted manuscript, supporting information on the genetics and origin of the plants involved must be provided. When the research involves rare and non-model plants (other than, e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, or Oryza sativa), voucher specimens must be deposited in an accessible herbarium or museum. Future investigators may review these vouchers in order to verify the identity of the material used in a study (especially in cases in which subsequent taxonomic rearrangements occur). Submissions of specimens should provide details of the populations sampled at the site of collection (including GPS coordinates), the date of collection, and an indication of the parts of the plants used in the study where appropriate. The requirement for this documentation may be waived for work involving threatened or endangered species provided that the researchers submit a cover letter with their manuscript explaining the situation. The editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

    The following are examples of ethical statements:

    • "Torenia fournieri plants were used in this study. White-flowered crown white (CrW) and violet-flowered crown violet (CrV) cultivars selected from the ‘Crown Mix’ (XXX Company, City, Country) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX (XXX Institute, City, Country)."
    • "Arabidopis mutant lines (SALKxxxx, SAILxxxx, …) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX, institute, city, country)."

    Publication Ethics

    Tech Science Press (TSP) is dedicated to ensuring the quality of each paper that it publishes. In the interest of maintaining the highest standards in academic publishing, we suggest that authors, editors, reviewers, and editorial staff abide by the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Many questions regarding the ethical dimensions of conduct relating to the publication of scientific research can be answered by consulting the COPE website (publicationethics.org/core-practices); researchers may also contact this journal at jrm@techscience.com regarding any ethical concerns. The potential conflicts of interest for all authors must be disclosed in their papers at the time of submission. It is assumed that authors are presenting their research findings accurately and discussing the significance of their work objectively. 

    The data and methods used in the research must be presented in sufficient detail in the paper so that other researchers would be able to replicate the work. Authors should make the raw data available in a public repository prior to the submission of their manuscripts; at the very least, the data should be accessible to the journal’s referees and editors upon request. In addition, authors are expected to take appropriate measures so that their raw data are retained in full for a reasonable period of time after publication. 

    TSP does not consider for publication manuscripts that have been submitted to more than one journal at the same time or that do not present novel results. Thus, for example, an English translation of a paper that has already been published in another language would not be considered. Further, manuscripts should not present as original any information that has already been published. Accordingly, previously published figures or images may be included only after the necessary permission has been obtained from the copyright holders for publication under the CC-BY license. Additional information on this topic is available on the Rights and Permissions page. 

    Should authors find errors or inaccuracies in the published versions of their papers, they must promptly make editors of the journal aware of the fact so that the appropriate action can be taken to rectify the situation.  

    Plagiarism

    Submission of duplicate manuscripts 

    As just stated, TSP journals consider for publication only original manuscripts. Thus, it is assumed that, when a manuscript is submitted, no other manuscript that is substantially similar to it has been or will be submitted to any other journal before a TSP journal has had the opportunity to decide whether to publish it. In other words, it is considered unethical to submit the same manuscript to more than one journal at the same time. Likewise, publications that are duplicative or redundant (i.e., that present in different wording data that have already been published by the same authors) are not accepted. 

    Fabrication and falsification 

    The authors of submitted manuscripts or published articles in which the results are found to have been fabricated or falsified, including through the manipulation of images, may be sanctioned, and their published articles may be retracted. 

    Plagiarism and other forms of fraud 

    It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure the originality of their work. Upon submission, all manuscripts are meticulously evaluated for similarity to previously submitted and published articles. So also figures and images are examined for the presence of duplicative or anomalous data. Authors should retain their unprocessed data and source files after submitting their articles, as the editor may request this material in the process of evaluation for publication, which may be suspended until or unless the authors resolve the issue. The editor reserves the right to question a manuscript’s originality and integrity and to raise these concerns with the authors’ sponsoring institutions and other relevant bodies.  

    Misconduct 

    The suspicion that authors or reviewers have engaged in misconduct will result in action either before or after publication. When such suspicions are raised regarding a paper that has already been published—even years after the fact—a preliminary investigation will be carried out, again following the COPE guidelines (publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts), in the course of which the party or parties involved will be called upon to explain their conduct. 

    Online First

    Most articles accepted and ready for publication in a TSP journal are published Online First, ahead of an assignment of a journal issue. Articles published Online First are copyedited and proofed by the author(s) before being published. Online First articles can be cited by the article’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Every article has a unique DOI which is the permanent identifier of all versions of that article. A DOI will always resolve to the latest version.

    8. Authorship and Contribution

    The listed authors include all of the individuals who have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content of an article in terms of the conception, drafting, and revising of the work and the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Their approval is required for the submitted version as well as any substantially modified version to which they have contributed. Further, all of the listed authors are considered personally responsible for all aspects of the work and must guarantee that any questions regarding its accuracy or integrity—even for aspects of the work in which an individual author did not personally take part—are appropriately examined, resolved, and documented in the article.

    On the other hand, involvement in the securing of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of a research group does not in itself justify listing as an author. Rather, those who have contributed to the work in such ways should be listed in the acknowledgments.

    Please note that submissions by any individual other than one of the listed authors will not be considered. It is not only the edition changes that require the consent of all authors, but also the authorship changes, that is, adding and deleting authors requires the consent and signature of all authors.

    9. Conflicts of Interest

    Conflicts of interest (COIs, also referred to as “competing interests”) are external pressures that have the potential to influence the validity or objectivity of research. Editors, authors, and reviewers may have COIs, and TSP considers it essential to identify and seek to mitigate them so as to ensure the integrity of its role in the dissemination and preservation of knowledge. In order to limit COIs, authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or associations that may be perceived as having such influence and acknowledge all funding sources for the work. However, COI statements relating to public funding sources, such as government agencies and charitable or academic institutions, need not be supplied.

    To be specific, TSP defines a COI as any relationship that may have an impact on the authors, reviewers, or editors of a manuscript during the peer review process, on the making of editorial decisions, or generally on any stage in the path toward publication. Thus COIs may include (but are not limited to): 

    • affiliation with the same institution; 
    • personal relationships, e.g., between thesis advisers and their students;
    • academic relationships, e.g., among co-authors, collaborators, or competitors;
    • business or financial relationships.

    COIs are not considered permanent; however; such relationships that have ended more than two years prior to the submission of a manuscript need not be identified as sources of potential conflict.

    Authors

    TSP requires a declaration from all authors of a manuscript regarding any potential COIs that could be relevant to the integrity or reliability of the scientific and professional judgment presented therein, as well as that of otherwise unassociated studies in the same journal. If there is, in fact, no conflict of interest, the authors should state plainly, “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.” 

    Reviewers

    Reviewers should declare any COIs when they are assigned a manuscript and disclose this information to the editor, who will then assess whether they should proceed with the review process. 

    Editors

    The evaluation procedure (i.e., peer review and decisions regarding publication) must be free of biased editorial decisions. If an editor, guest editor, or associate editor believes that a personal, professional, or financial connection to an author may compromise the procedure, he or she must inform the journal’s editorial office of the fact. 

    TSP publishes all articles under an open-access license, which means that they remain accessible to all without charge and without technical or legal barriers and that they can be re-used with proper acknowledgment and citation. Financial support for open access publication is provided by the authors’ institutions or by research funding agencies, which pay a relatively low article processing charge (APC) once manuscripts that have been accepted. More specifically, TSP journals publish articles under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. TSP is committed to open access publishing as a means to foster the exchange of research among scientists, especially across disciplines. 

    The copyright and other proprietary rights related to work published by a TSP journal are retained by the authors. If they reproduce any text, figures, tables, or illustrations from this work in their own future research, the authors must cite the original published version. They are further asked to inform the journal’s editorial office of any exceptional circumstances in this regard at the time of submission, for which exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the publisher.

    Articles published in TSP journals are likely to contain material republished with permission under a more restrictive license. When this situation arises, it should be indicated; it is the responsibility of the authors to seek permission for reuse from the copyright holder.

    11. Editorial Procedure and Peer Review 

    All TSP journals are peer-review journals. The publication ethics and publication malpractice statement regulate ethical behavior based on COPE´s Best Practice Guidelines and is supplemented by instructions to authors. 

    Initial Checks

    All submitted manuscripts received by the Editorial Office will be initial-checked by a Managing Editor before the manuscripts sent to peer-review to decide whether they are correctly formatted/prepared and follow the ethical policies of the journal and also fit the scope of the journal and whether it is scientifically sound. Manuscripts that do not meet the journal's ethics policy or do not qualify to the standards or the scope of the journal will be rejected before peer-review. Manuscripts that are inadequately prepared will be returned to the author(s) for revision and resubmission. After the initial check, the managing editor will send the qualified manuscripts to the journals' Editor(s). Editor(s) will make initial decisions, qualified manuscripts will be sent for peer-review. No judgment on the significance or potential impact of the work will be made at the initial check stage. Rejection decisions at this stage will be verified by the Editor(s). 

    Peer Review

    All manuscripts considered for publication in our journals, including invited papers, go through a stringent and thorough peer-review procedure. After an initial check, the manuscript is assigned to a handling editor, who then assigns it to reviewers and otherwise oversees the peer review. Authors may be asked to make minor or even major revisions before a handling editor decides whether to proceed with subsequent rounds of peer review. The final decision regarding acceptance is made by either the journal’s Editor(s). 

    At least two independent experts take part in the peer-review procedure. The procedure is single-blind in nature, meaning that the reviewers know the identities of the authors whose work they are assessing but that the authors do not know the identities of the reviewers. The comments generated during peer review remain confidential and may only be disclosed with the express agreement of the reviewer. 

    Editor(s) may consider assigning a manuscript to reviewers whom the authors suggest. In any case, the reviewers must have no conflicts of interest. In particular, scholars who have published joint work with any of the authors at any time the two years prior to submission of a manuscript or who are currently collaborating with any researchers at any of the authors’ institutions are not eligible to serve as reviewers. 

    Reviewers’ Responsibilities

    Reviewers are expected

    • to contribute to the orderly running and reputation of the journal and to further its quality-driven mission by evaluating manuscripts objectively and in a timely manner; 
    • to maintain the confidentiality of any information supplied by the editor or author, to destroy the manuscript after their reviews, and not to copy it or to use or disseminate unpublished information, arguments, or interpretations contained therein without express permission to do so;
    • to make clear and justify the bases of their evaluations;
    • to be aware of potential conflicts of interest (i.e., financial, institutional, collaborative, or other relationships between a reviewer and an author) and to bring any such conflicts to the editor’s attention, if necessary ceasing their work on the manuscript;
    • to notify the associate editor and editor-in-chief immediately should they become aware of any scientific misconduct, fraud, plagiarism, or other unethical behavior related to the manuscript.

    The Peer-Review Process

    Editorial Decisions

    All original articles, reviews, and other types of papers published in TSP journals go through the peer-review process. The decision regarding publication is based on a minimum of two reviewers’ comments and may take one of four forms. 

      Accept 

      The paper is in principle accepted based on the reviewers’ comments. The decision to publish is not based solely on the scientific validity of an article’s content but may also take into account such considerations as its extent and importance.  

      Minor revisions 

      The paper is to be accepted after it has undergone minor revisions specified in the reviewers’ comments. In this situation, authors have five days to complete the minor revisions along with point-by-point responses to the comments or to provide a rebuttal letter.  

      Major revisions 

      The paper may be accepted provided that it is thoroughly revised. In this case as well, the authors must provide a point-by-point response or rebuttal to the comments, and the revised version is sent to the same reviewer for further comment. 

      Decline 

      Articles are rejected without the possibility of acceptance after revision when they are found to suffer from serious flaws and/or to make no substantial original contribution to the scholarship.  

      In the cases in which revisions are called for, then, authors are expected to provide point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ comments, especially in those instances in which they disagree with the comments. 

      The journal’s editorial workflow authorizes the editors to reject any manuscript because its subject is deemed inappropriate, it is of poor quality, or its results appear erroneous. Editors are themselves prevented from serving as external reviewers of manuscripts in order to ensure that every manuscript submitted to their journal undergoes a well-informed and unbiased peer-review process. Thus, any manuscript must be recommended by, usually, two or more external reviewers along with the handling editor before it is accepted for publication in its final form. 

    12. Corrections and Retractions 

    Corrections 

    TSP considers every article published online to be in its final form. When authors receive the proofs of their articles, they have the opportunity to check for errors. Occasionally, however, errors may be detected in a published article. A correction is a statement indicating the correction of an error or omission; for TSP, authors or readers may submit such a statement either through the journal’s online manuscript submission system or by sending an email to the journal’s editorial office (along with the submission ID). A corrected article is not removed from the journal’s contents, but a correction notice is linked to it and made freely available to all readers. 

    TSP publishes corrections of errors involving metadata and those of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall thrust of a published article only; the addition of new data is not permitted. During the correction process, the editor responsible for preparing the article for publication is consulted when necessary. 

    Retractions 

    A retraction is a notice that a previously published paper should no longer be regarded as part of the published literature. The primary purpose of retractions is to correct major errors and to ensure the integrity of the literature rather than to punish the authors of compromised papers. Retractions are thus issued in cases in which there is clear evidence that the findings either are unreliable—whether as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication) or honest mistakes (e.g., miscalculations or experimental errors)—have previously been published elsewhere without proper citation, permission, or justification (i.e., instances of redundant publication), or are the product of plagiarism or other forms of unethical behavior. 

    The retraction will be assigned to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal, the Editor, and the Managing Editor who handled the paper. Retracted articles should not be removed from printed copies of the journal (e.g. in libraries) nor from electronic archives but their retracted status should be indicated as clearly as possible. Notice of retraction is linked to the retracted article and are freely available to all readers. 

    Artcles may be retracted by their author(s) or by the Journal Editor, or the publisher. In all cases, the retraction indicates the reason for the action and who is responsible for the decision. If a retraction is made without the unanimous agreement of the authors, that is also noted. 

    In rare and extreme cases, the publisher may remove an article. Bibliographic information about the article will be retained to ensure the integrity of the scientific record.

    13. Post-publication Discussions and Corrections 

    TSP allows for further discussion after either publication or rejection. Thus, authors may appeal a rejection or request an opportunity for post-publication revision by contacting the journal’s editorial office, though only in cases involving a major misunderstanding concerning either a technical aspect of the manuscript or the scientific advance demonstrated therein. When making such an appeal or request, authors must provide a detailed justification for their request or description of the situation, including point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ and/or editor’s comments. The journal’s managing editor then forwards the manuscript and related information (including the identities of the referees) to the responsible editor (either the editor-in-chief or, in the case of special issues, the guest editor), who renders a decision that is considered final and irreversible. 

    14. Investigations and Sanctions

    If Tech Science Press becomes aware of breaches of the publication ethics policies, the following sanctions may be applied across the Tech Science Press journals:

    • Rejection of the manuscript and any other manuscripts submitted by the author(s).
    • Not allowing submission for 1–3 years.
    • Prohibition from acting as an editor or reviewer.

    Suspected breaches of our publication ethics policies, either before and after publication, as well as concerns about research ethics, should be reported to the ethics group of TSP and undergone a thorough investigation. During the investigation process, the underlying data and images, consult editors, and etc. maybe requested to provide by authors for an investigation.