Instructions for Authors

ISSN: 0327-9545 (Print)

ISSN: 1667-5746 (Online)


General Format of Articles 
Chemical Compounds 
Mandatory Data Deposition and Suggested Repositories 
Suggesting Reviewers
English Editing Service
Authorship and Contribution
Publication Ethics
Editors and Journal Staff as Authors
Conflicts of Interest
Copyright and Licensing
Corrections and Retractions
Appeals and complaints

All manuscripts must be submitted via the online system, and manuscripts submitted for publication must be prepared according to the guidelines given below.

Template in PDF: Sample.pdf.

Template in MS Word: Sample.doc.

This guideline is intended to assist authors as they prepare their manuscripts. To avoid any delay and time-consuming restructuring, BIOCELL asks and encourages authors to read the guidelines before writing the manuscript.

BIOCELL publishes review and research articles. All papers must be written in English, and follow a clear, concise style. The language editors may have to check the language and grammar of your submitted manuscript, and make editorial changes if deemed necessary.

1 General Format of Articles

A submission is composed by (1) the MANUSCRIPT FILE, and (2) the FIGURE FILES.

Arrange sections of the MANUSCRIPT FILE in the following order:

  • Title page

  • Abstract (with no sections nor references, and not exceeding 300 words)

  • Main text

  • References

  • Tables (numbered in Arabic numerals). They should be typed in the Manuscript file

  • Figure legends

For Review Articles

Reviews normally should have 150–300 words in the abstract, be continuous (not structured) and without reference numbers. Reviews may have different sections and sub-headings according to the subject matter. The main headings of the review should be summarized as a numbered ‘Contents’ section immediately following the ‘Abstract’.

For Case Reports

Case Reports should include a succinct introduction about the general medical condition or relevant symptoms that will be discussed in the case report; the case presentation including all of the relevant de-identified demographic and descriptive information about the patient(s), and a description of the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome; a discussion providing context and any necessary explanation of specific treatment decisions; a conclusion briefly outlining the take-home message and the lessons learned. Case Reports (on one case) are not accepted to the journal.

Begin each component on a separate page. Number all pages (starting with the title page), tables and figures in Arabic numerals. Do not number lines.

The Title Page should Contain the Following:

  • Main title (in bold letters, not exceeding 200 characters and spaces). The following example will help: ‘The testis and spermatogenesis in Thais c[1] lavigera…’ .

  • Full names of all authors, with the family name in capital letters (do not include authors’ academic degrees). The following example will help: Nicholas FISHER, John MILLER, Anthony BAKER.

  • Running title (not exceeding 50 characters including spaces).

  • Key words: between three to five; do not use words which are already in the main title.

  • Title of the corresponding author (e.g., Professor, Dr., Mr., Mrs., Ms.), full name and email address. The title is only intended for correspondence and it will not be used in the printed article.

Main Text

The text should be written in clear, concise English, and it should be easily understandable to a broad readership. Sentences should not begin with abbreviations or numerals. Main headings should be Introduction, Material and Methods, Results (or Systematic Description), Discussion and Acknowledgements (if necessary) and they should be centered and in capital letters, while just one level of subsidiary headings should be on the left, in italics). Do not number headings. Combining Results and Discussion is not allowed.

Linnean scientific names should be in italics, while higher than generic taxa should not. The generic name of drugs, as well as all other common names, should be written in lower case. Gene designations should be in lower case and in italics, while protein designations should be in regular capital letters.

Materials and Methods

Any commercialized kits, reagents, instruments, software, antibodies, etc. used in the research, shall be provided with their full name, along with the information of the Manufacturers/suppliers/software details (Name, City, Province/State, Country). 

Accession numbers of RNA, DNA and protein sequences used in the manuscript should be provided.


Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they appear in the abstract, main text, and in figure or table caption and used consistently thereafter. Accepted abbreviations for statistical parameters are: P, n, SD, SEM, df, ns, ANOVA, t. Naming of chemicals should follow that given in Chemical Abstracts Service.


Units of measurement should be used concisely according to the International System of Units (SI). All units should be converted to SI units whenever possible.

Statistical Analysis

Appropriate statistical treatment of the data is essential. When statistical analysis is performed, the name of the statistical test used, the number for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, the alpha level and the actual p-value for each test should be provided.


References in the text should take one of the following forms:

  • (Aitken, 1989) or (Moos and Hackstadt, 1987)

  • (Aitken, 1989; Moos and Hackstadt, 1987)

If there are more than two authors, you can write the first author' last names following the mark ‘et al.,.

  • (Hoover et al., 2002)

Please read the following requirements and examples carefully.

The author-year format of the citation must be used for the references. The author-year format of the citation must be used for the references. For example, (Atluri, 1986). If the cited reference has two authors, please see the example, (Atluri and Han, 2000). If the cited reference has more than three authors, please cite all first three authors last names, and followed by et al.,. For example, (Atluri, Nakagaki, Han et al., 2000). When you cite more than one reference, please cite each reference and separate them by a semicolon, see (Atluri, 1998; Atluri and Nakagaki, 1986; Atluri et al., 2000). If the sentence starts with a referenced author's name, please cite right after the authors name. For example, Martinez et al. (2014) determined the presence of .... No citation to the page number should be used.

All references should be listed at the end of the paper. The names of the authors, with the last name(s) first, followed by the year in which the paper is published. Journal and book titles should be in italic. A full name of journal cited in reference should be used followed the volume and page number. References at the end should be listed in alphabetical order.


Alías L, Bernal S, Calucho M, Martínez E, March F, Gallano P, Fuentes-Prior P, Abuli A, Serra-Juhe C, Tizzano EF (2018). Utility of two SMN1 variants to improve spinal muscular atrophy carrier diagnosis and genetic counselling. European Journal of Human Genetics 26: 1554–1557. 

Arnold ES, Fischbeck KH (2018). Spinal muscular atrophy. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 148: 591–601.

Baker CR, Hanson-Smith V, Johnson AD (2013). Following gene duplication, paralog interference constrains transcriptional circuit evolution. Science 342: 104–108.

Calucho M, Bernal S, Alías L, March F, Venceslá A, RodríguezÁlvarez FJ, Aller E, Fernández RM, Borrego S, Millán JM, Hernández-Chico C, Cuscó I, Fuentes-Prior P, Tizzano EF (2018). Correlation between SMA type and SMN2 copy number revisited: An analysis of 625 unrelated Spanish patients and a compilation of 2834 reported cases. Neuromuscular Disorders 28: 208–215. 


Tables should be typed on separate sheets, and they should be numbered in Arabic numerals, and cited as such in the Text. Units and the statistics employed should be clearly explained either in the table's body or in the footnotes to the table. Tables should be editable by the editorial office and not appear in a picture format.


Authors should include all figures and tables in the PDF file of the manuscript. Figures should be centered, and should have a figure caption placed underneath. The size of the figures is measured in centimeters and inches. Please prepare your figures at a size within 17 cm (6.70 in) in width and 20 cm (7.87 in) in height. Figures should be placed in the text immediately after the point where they are referenced. In the main text, where referencing the figures, use Fig. followed by a space and the figure number, e.g., Fig. 1. The digital format JPEG, PNG, TIFF are acceptable, with >300 dpi resolution.

Images of cells and western blots should be large enough to see the relevant features. In addition, uncropped, untouched, full original images of western blots should be uploaded with the other figure files.

Copyright of Figures

If a figure or table has been published previously (even if you were the author of the manuscript), copyright permission for reuse of the figure or table will often be required. The acknowledgement and written permission from the copyright holder will be required where necessary.

Figure Legends

They should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Statistical evaluations should indicate the test used. Micrographs magnification should be indicated by scale bars on them, and the size of the scale bar should be indicated in the legend, not on the micrograph. When the same magnification is used for several panels of the same figure, a single scale bar should be used.

Figure Labels

The size of labels should be no smaller than 8-point and no larger than the font size of the main text. Figure labels must be sized in proportion to the image, sharp, and legible. Labels must be saved using standard fonts (Arial, Helvetica or Symbol font) and should be of the same font and size in all figures in one paper. All labels should be in black, and should not be overlapped, faded, broken or distorted. The first letter of each phrase, NOT each word, must be capitalized.

Figures Layout

No specific feature of an image should be augmented, altered, enhanced, obscured, moved, or removed. The focus should be on the data rather than its presentation (e.g., background, imperfections, and non-specific bands should not be “cleaned up”).


2 Declarations

Submitted manuscripts should, where appropriate, contain the following parts right before the list of references:


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in this section.

Funding Statement

Authors must disclose all sources of funding for the research in the Funding Statement of the article. The statement should be specifying the role of each in the design of the study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and the composition of the manuscript. Specifically, the full name of each source of funding should be provided accompanied by any associated grant numbers in square brackets, URLs to sponsors’ websites. If the study has no funding support, please include “The author(s) received no specific funding for this study.” in the funding statement. Funding sources should not be written in the Acknowledgments or anywhere else in the manuscript file.

Availability of Data and Materials

This statement—which is not required for review articles—should make clear how readers can access the data used in the study and explain why any unavailable data cannot be released.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors must declare all potential conflicts of interest; if they have none to declare, they should state plainly, “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.” 

    3 Chemical Compounds

    Chemical and Chemical Nomenclature and Abbreviations
    Authors should provide the exact structure of the chemical compound, and if there are appeared as new chemical compounds, authors should submit the small-molecule crystallographic data to the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and deposit relevant information to PubChem. The final version of the manuscript should contain the accession codes. When possible, authors should use systematic nomenclature to identify chemical compounds, and biomolecules using IUPAC is preferred. Standard chemical and chemical abbreviations should be used. Chemical structures should be included as high-resolution files according to Cell Press Figure Guidelines.

    Combinatorial Compound Libraries

    The authors should include standard characterization data for a diverse panel of library components when describing the preparation of combinatorial libraries in the manuscript.

    Chemical Structures for Organic and Organometallic Compounds

    Chemical structures for organic and organometallic compounds should be established through spectroscopic analysis. The authors should provide standard peak listings for both 1H NMR and proton-decoupled 13C NMR for all new compounds. Other NMR data, when appropriate, such as 31P NMR, 19F NMR, etc. should be reported. For the identification of functional groups, both UV and IR spectral data should be reported when appropriate. For crystalline materials, melting-point ranges should be included. For the analysis of chiral compounds, specific rotations should be reported. For known compounds, authors should provide detailed references.

    Spectral Data
    Detailed spectral data for new compounds should be provided in the Materials and methods section. The authors should explain how specific, unambiguous NMR assignments were made in the Materials and methods section.

    Crystallographic Data for Small Molecules

    For crystallographic data for small molecules, authors should provide a standard crystallographic information file (CIF) and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids. The authors should check the CIF using the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) checkCIF. For the structure, the structure factors must be included either in the main CIF or in a separate CIF. Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the accession number must be referenced in the manuscript.

    Biomolecular Materials
    Manuscripts reporting new biomolecular structures should contain a table summarizing structural and refinement statistics. If suitable, high-field NMR or X-ray crystallography may also be used. For new biopolymeric materials (e.g., oligosaccharides, peptides, nucleic acids, etc.), if it is not possible for structural analysis by NMR spectroscopic methods. Authors must provide evidence of the identity based on sequence (when appropriate) and mass spectral characterization.

    Biological Constructs

    Authors should provide sequencing or functional data that validates the identity of their biological constructs (plasmids, fusion proteins, site-directed mutants) upon request.


    For new materials, as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR, the mass spectral analysis should be used to support the identification of molecular weight. Ideally, high-resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data are preferred.


    The authors must provide a detailed characterization of both individual objects and bulk composition.

    4 Mandatory Data Deposition and Suggested Repositories

    Before submission of the manuscript, the deposition of new sequence information to the community-endorsed, public repository is necessary. Accession numbers and other relevant, unique identifiers provided by the database should be included in the submitted manuscript. 

    DNA and RNA Sequences: Genbank, European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), DDBJ, Protein DataBank, UniProt 

    DNA Sequencing Data: GEO, ArrayExpress, NCBI Trace and Short-Read Archive, ENA's Sequence Read Archive

    New microarray (Data must be MIAME compliant, as described at the MGED website specifying microarray standards): Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), ArrayExpress. Genetic polymorphisms: dbSNPdbVAR

    Linked genotype and phenotype data: dbGAPEuropean Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)

    Protein sequences: UniProt (submission tool SPIN). Flow cytometry: FlowRepository

    Chemical Compound Screening and Assay Data: PubChem

Suggesting Reviewers

Authors are welcome and encouraged to suggest reviewers when they submit their manuscripts by using the submission system. Authors should make sure they are totally independent and without conflicts of interest in any way. When suggesting reviewers, the Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer.

6 English Editing Service

Clear and concise language enables both the journal editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of your manuscript. In order to facilitate a proper peer review process and ensure that submissions are judged exclusively on academic merit, BIOCELL strongly encourages authors to prepare the language of their manuscripts with the utmost care. The use of the recommended language polishing service on your manuscript does not indicate the acceptance of your manuscript for publication in BIOCELL.

If you are an author whose native language is not English—or you have any concerns regarding the language quality of your manuscript—we recommend having your manuscript professionally edited by a qualified English-speaking researcher in your field prior to submission.

The following is TSP's collaborating language-editing company which offering discounted services to TSP's authors. To be noticed that the use of any language-editing services does not guarantee acceptance to any TSP Journal.


Please use the following Coupon Code to receive the special 5% off when you check out with LetPub: TSP5D

Please use the provided link or the following Coupon Code to receive the special 10% off when you check out with Charlesworth: TSP51


Please use the provided link to receive the special 20% off when you check out with TopEdit.

7 Authorship and Contribution

The listed authors include all of the individuals who have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content of an article in terms of the conception, drafting, and revising of the work and the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Their approval is required for the submitted version as well as any substantially modified version to which they have contributed. Further, all of the listed authors are considered personally responsible for all aspects of the work and must guarantee that any questions regarding its accuracy or integrity—even for aspects of the work in which an individual author did not personally take part—are appropriately examined, resolved, and documented in the article.

On the other hand, involvement in the securing of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of a research group does not in itself justify listing as an author. Rather, those who have contributed to the work in such ways should be listed in the acknowledgments.

Please note that submissions by any individual other than one of the listed authors will not be considered. We expect all authors will take responsibility for the content of the manuscript they submitted. The information of contributions of all authors are urged to be described, as BIOCELL may contact all authors by email to ensure the authorship.

It is not only the edition changes that require the consent of all authors, but also the authorship changes, that is, adding and deleting authors requires the consent and signature of all authors.

Requests made for an authorship change must include an explanation for the change and must come from the corresponding author. If the change is appropriate, the corresponding author must receive and provide the consent to the change from all the authors, including any addition or deletion. If authorship issues are found after publication, it may result in a correction. If the authors are unable to resolve the dispute of authorship by themselves, TSP may raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines. Please note that if you have changed affiliation during the research, your new affiliation can be acknowledged in a note. TSP does not normally take requests for changes to affiliation after the acceptance of manuscripts.

8 Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest (COIs, also referred to as “competing interests”) may indicate the potential to influence the validity or objectivity of research. Editors, authors, and reviewers may be involved into COIs, and BIOCELL considers it essential to identify and seek to mitigate them so as to ensure the integrity of its role in the dissemination and preservation of knowledge. Failure to declare competing interests may result in decline of a manuscript.

In order to limit COIs, all roles involved in the peer-review process must identify and declare any personal circumstances or associations that may be perceived as having such influence and acknowledge all funding sources for the work. However, COI statements relating to public funding sources, such as government agencies and charitable or academic institutions, need not be supplied.

To be specific, BIOCELL defines a COI as any relationship that may have an impact on the authors, reviewers, or editors of a manuscript during the peer review process, on the making of editorial decisions, or generally on any stage in the path toward publication.

Thus, COIs may include (but not limited to): 
Financial COIs

  • Stock or share ownership

  • Patent applications

  • Research grants

  • Consultancies

  • Royalties

Non-financial COIs

  • Affiliation with the same institution;

  • Personal relationships, e.g., between thesis advisers and their students, friends, family members, etc.;

  • Academic relationships, e.g., among co-authors, collaborators, or competitors;

  • Government employees;

  • Members of BIOCELL editorial board of a TSP journal.

COIs are not considered permanent; such relationships that have ended more than two years prior to the submission of a manuscript need not be identified as sources of potential conflict.


BIOCELL requires a declaration from all authors of a manuscript regarding any potential COIs that could be relevant to the integrity or reliability of the scientific and professional judgment presented therein, as well as that of otherwise unassociated studies in the same journal. Potential conflict, unless already declared, will be held in confidence while the paper is under review. If the article is accepted for publication, the potential conflict of interest will be included in the acknowledgments. If there is, in fact, no conflict of interest, the authors should state plainly.


Reviewers should declare any COIs when they are assigned a manuscript and disclose this information to the editor, who will then assess whether they should proceed with the review process. 


Editors, including Editors-in-Chief, Associate Editors and Guest Editors should be aware of their own potential COIs. If the Editors have authored or coauthored the manuscripts submitted to BIOCELL, Editors might be perceived to be influenced by the relationship. BIOCELL expects the Editor(s) to declare any COIs or potential COIs.

BIOCELL publishes all articles under an open-access license, which means that the articles remain accessible to all without charge and without technical or legal barriers and that they can be reused with proper acknowledgment and citation. Financial support for the open access publication is provided by the authors’ institutions or by research funding agencies in the way of article processing charge (APC) once manuscripts have been accepted. More specifically, BIOCELL publishes articles under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. BIOCELL is committed to open access publishing as a means to foster the exchange of research among scientists, especially across disciplines. 

The copyright and other proprietary rights related to papers published by BIOCELL are retained by the authors. If the authors reproduce any text, figures, tables, or illustrations from the papers published by BIOCELL in their own future research, they must cite the originally published version. They are further asked to inform BIOCELL’s editorial office of any exceptional circumstances in this regard at the time of submission, for which exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the publisher.

Articles published in BIOCELL are likely to contain material republished with permission under a more restrictive license. When this situation arises, it should be indicated; it is the responsibility of the authors to seek permission for reuse from the copyright holder.

10 Editors and Journal Staff as Authors

In the circumstances where Editors or editorial staff of the journal submit their own studies to the journal, they shall not be involved in the reviewing process, and the review process must be made transparently and rigorously. Submissions authored by editors or editorial staff of the journal will be handled by another editor who has least COIs with the authors to minimize the bias.

11 Corrections & Retractions

TSP journals will issue corrections, and/or retraction statements, when deemed proper.


BIOCELL aims to publish every article online in its final form. Upon receiving the proofs of their accepted manuscripts, authors will have an opportunity to check for errors and oversights. Occasionally, a mistake is pointed out in a published article, necessitating the issuance of a correction statement. A correction is a statement rectifying an error or an omission, Authors or readers may submit such a statement either through the journal’s online manuscript submission system (, or by sending an email, along with the submission ID, to the BIOCELL’s editorial office ( A correction notice, published and linked to the corresponding article, is freely accessible to all readers.

When making corrections to the original articles, the original article both in PDF and XML versions are corrected and bi-directionally linked to and from the published amendment notice that details the original error. Any changes made to the original articles affect data in figures, tables or text, the amendment notice will reproduce the original data. If it is not possible to correct the original article in both PDF and XML versions, the article will remain unchanged but will contain links that direct to and from the published correction notice.

  • Author’s Correction: An Author’s Correction may be published to correct an important error(s) made by the author that affects the scientific integrity of the published article, the publication record, or the reputation of the authors or the journal. The Managing Editor of that manuscript will be responsible for handling the correction process.

  • Publisher’s Correction: A Publisher’s Correction may be published to correct an important error(s) made by the journal that affects the scientific integrity of the published article, the publication record, or the reputation of the authors or of the journal.


A retraction is a notice that a previously published paper should no longer be regarded as part of the published literature. The primary purpose of a retraction is to ensure the integrity and completeness of scholarly records by withdrawing any manuscript which is found to contain infringements of professional ethical codes, major errors, or where its main conclusion is seriously undermined as a result of new evidence coming to light.
Violations of professional ethical codes include multiple submissions without proper citations or permission, redundant publications, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, etc. Major errors cover any or all miscalculations or experimental errors, intentionally or due to honest mistakes.

The retraction will be referred to the Editors-in-Chief, Associate Editors, and the Managing Editor who have handled the paper. Retracted articles will not be removed from the printed copies of the journal (e.g., from libraries) nor from the electronic archives. Their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible. Bibliographic information about the article will be retained to ensure the permanence and integrity of the published scientific record. When an article is retracted, in most of the cases, the original manuscript is corrected and is bi-directionally linked (to and from) the published retraction notice which details the original error. For the purpose of transparency, when corrections made to the original article affect any data, figures, tables or texts, the retraction notice will display the original data alongside the corrected version. When a correction is not possible, all existing versions of the article will remain unchanged but will contain the bi-directional links, to and from, the published retraction notice.
The notice of retraction is permanently linked to its corresponding retracted article and is freely available and accessible by all readers.
Articles may be retracted by their Author(s), by the Journal Editors, or by the Publisher, i.e., Tech Science Press. In all instances, the retraction should indicate the reason for the action as well as the entity behind the decision. A retraction made without the unanimous agreement of the authors is feasible and indicated as such.

Removal of Published Content

Under special circumstances, TSP reserves the right to remove an article, book or other content from TSP’s website and submission system. Such action may be taken when:

  • There are evidence indicating that the published content is defamatory, infringes on intellectual property rights, privacy rights, other legal rights, or is plainly unlawful;

  • A court or government order requires removal of such content;

  • The content, if acted upon, would pose an immediate and serious risks to health. Removal may be temporary or permanent. A statement will be published explaining the decision behind the removal.

Addressing Post-publication Issues

TSP is fully committed to maintaining the integrity and completeness of the scientific record and recognizes its importance to researchers and the academic community at large. As such, TSP will thoroughly investigate concerns that are directly raised with us by authors and/or readers. Authors are strongly encouraged to address any raised issues. In the course of our investigation, we may request original raw data, and consult with experts and other scholars in the field. Depending on the seriousness of the issues, the following outcomes may ensue:

  • A manuscript still under consideration may be rejected and returned to the author.

  • A published online article, depending on the nature and severity of the issues, may result in a correction notice or a retraction notice.

  • Issues deemed to be serious may prompt TSP to inform the authors’ institution and related affiliations.

Our actions are driven by our dedicated aim for transparent notification to our readers and unabated commitment to the integrity of the published record, and not by any motivation to sanction individuals or attribute responsibility to specific named individuals. We may refer readers to the institutional investigations’ reports if they are publicly available. While we are committed to addressing post-publications issues and correcting the record swiftly, investigations typically take some time to reach resolutions given the complexity of the discussions, the diligence in our process and the need to obtain original data and consult with experts. We will issue and regularly update relevant Editor’s Notes and/or Editor’s Expression of Concern as interim notifications to alert our readership of any of concerns with published material.

12 Appeals and Complaints

BIOCELL is open for further discussion after either a publication or a rejection of a manuscript.

Appeal against a Rejection

Authors may appeal a rejection, or request further discussions or post-publication revisions, by contacting the Journal’s Editorial department. When making such an appeal or request, Authors must provide a detailed justification for their request, with a description of the situation, including point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ and/or editor’s comments. The Journal’s Managing Editor will then forward the manuscript and the related information (including the identities of the referees) to the Editor in charge (either one of the Editors-in-Chief or, an Editorial Board Member with any conflict of interest (COI), who will render a final and irreversible decision. Appeals will only be considered from the originally submitting Authors. All information will be kept confidential.

As a general rule, an appeal to a Rejection Decision will only be considered if:

  • the authors can clearly and convincingly demonstrate that the final decision was based on an error made by a Referee or by the Editors during review

  • if important additional data can be provided

  • if a convincing case of bias in the process can be clearly demonstrated

Authors who wish to appeal an Editorial decision should submit a formal letter of Appeal to the Journal by contacting the journal editorial office ( . Please include the manuscript number in the email subject line and on the appeal letter.

If an appeal is successful, the Authors will be sent instructions on how to proceed. If an appeal merits further consideration, the Editor may decide to submit the Authors' response and the revised paper for further peer review.

Complaint about Scientific Content

Authors may contact the relevant Journal to file a complaint.
The Editor-in-Chief or the Handling Editor will consider the Authors’ argument and the Reviewers’ reports, and will decide whether:

  • The decision to reject should stand

  • Another independent opinion is required

  • The appeal should be considered

The complainant will be informed of the decision with an explanation when appropriate. Decisions on appeals are final and new submissions take priority over appeals.

Complaint about Processes

Authors may contact the Journal directly to raise a complaint concerning the process.
The Editor-in-Chief together with the Handling Editor will investigate the matter. The complainant will be given appropriate feedback. Feedback is provided to relevant stakeholders to improve processes and procedures.

Complaint about Publication Ethics

Authors may send an email to concerning ethical issues or complaints.
The Editor-in-Chief or the Handling Editor will diligently follow the guidelines published by the Committee on Publication Ethics in assessing the situation, and may resort to asking the Publisher via their in-house contact for advice on difficult or complicated cases. The Editor-in-Chief or the Handling Editor will  decide on a course of action and will provide relevant feedbacks to the complainant. If the complainant remains dissatisfied with the handling of the complaint, he/she may then submit the complaint to the Committee on Publication Ethics.