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Toll-like Receptors in Health and Disease: Unraveling Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

Submission Deadline: 31 October 2024 Submit to Special Issue

Guest Editors

Professor Rita Rezzani, Section of Anatomy and Physiopathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Italy.
Professor Fang Hua, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Science, College of Allied Health Science, Augusta University, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal players in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses, recognizing microbial and self-derived molecular signatures to orchestrate cellular immune defenses.  This special issue aims to explore the multifaceted roles of TLRs in maintaining immune homeostasis, tissue repair, and their dysregulation's contribution to a spectrum of diseases. Authors are encouraged to submit original research, reviews, and clinical studies that delve into the molecular and cellular aspects of TLR signaling in health and disease. Contributions may span in vitro and animal models, as well as clinical investigations involving patients. The focus will be on understanding TLRs' involvement in diseases such as autoimmune disorders, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disorders.


Topics include but are not limited to:

-Molecular Signaling Pathways: Investigate the intricate molecular pathways underlying TLR activation and their crosstalk with adaptive immunity in various diseases.

-Disease Associations: Explore the role of TLR dysregulation in specific diseases, including autoimmune disorders (e.g., lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), cancer, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders.

-Therapeutic Approaches: Highlight emerging therapeutic strategies targeting TLR signaling pathways. This includes small molecule inhibitors, antibodies, oligonucleotides, lipid-A analogs, microRNAs, and nano-inhibitors.

-Clinical Insights: Present findings from clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of TLR-targeted therapies in patients with various diseases.


This special Issue aims to consolidate current knowledge on TLRs, fostering collaboration between immunologists, molecular biologists, and clinicians. By comprehensively addressing TLRs' roles in health and disease, the issue will provide a foundation for developing innovative therapeutic interventions. We welcome researchers and clinicians to contribute to this collective effort in elucidating the intricate world of TLRs and translating this knowledge into tangible benefits for patients across diverse medical disciplines.


toll-like receptors (TLR), immune response, TLR signaling pathway, TLR inhibitor, disease association, therapeutic strategies

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