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Antimicrobial Resistance: From Basic Science to Applied Approaches

Submission Deadline: 31 July 2023 (closed) View: 8

Guest Editors


Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy. marcello.iriti@unimi.it


Prof. Dr. Elena Maria Varoni, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy. elena .varoni@unimi.it

Summary

According to the World Health Organization, resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs represents one of the top 10 global threats to public health that humanity faces. Antimicrobials are medicines used to treat infections in humans, animals and plants which include antibacterials (or antibiotics), antifungals, antivirals and antiparasitics. The use of antimicrobials exerts ecological pressure on microorganisms and contributes to the emergence and selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Therefore, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials are the main driving factors in the development of drug-resistant pathogens, as well as poor hygiene. Antimicrobial resistance is an adaptation of the microorganism to its environment and occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time and no longer respond to drugs making infections increasingly difficult or impossible to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread. Organisms resistant to antimicrobials are found in humans, animals, food, plants and the environment (soil, water and air). They can spread from person to person, between animals or between humans and animals (including from foods of animal origin) and the environment. The two main areas of prevention and management of antimicrobial resistance are therefore: i) prudent use of antimicrobials (i.e., only when needed, with the correct dose, at correct dose intervals and for a correct duration); ii) hygienic precautions to control the cross-transmission of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms.

 

Part of the antimicrobial resistance burden is due to antimicrobials used in food producing animals. Antibiotics used to treat and prevent veterinary infections belong to the same chemical groups as those used in human medicine, so animals can be carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics also used to treat infections in humans. Some bacteria, e.g., Salmonella and Campylobacter are associated with the consumption of contaminated foods. Indeed, due to exposure to antibiotics, animals may be carriers of Salmonella and Campylobacter resistant to antimicrobials which are transferred from animals to humans through food. Humans can also acquire antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from direct contact with animals, as is the case with some methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

 

In this scenario, natural products can be developed as novel multitarget antimicrobial agents capable of interacting with many molecular and physiological microbial targets. Furthermore, the combination of natural plant products (plant extracts, phytochemicals, or essential oils) with conventional antimicrobials offers another field of application and should be widely pursued as a therapeutic approach capable of sensitizing resistant pathogens and contributing to limit the antimicrobial resistance pandemics and the global burden of infectious diseases. In this very wide context, we invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore all these aspects.


Keywords

Antimicrobial Resistance; Antimicrobials; Multidrug Resistance; One Health; Infectious Diseases; Food-Borne Diseases; Air-Borne Diseases; Food Safety; Veterinary Antibiotics; Pesticides; Agrochemicals

Published Papers


  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Future of the current anticoronaviral agents: A viewpoint on the validation for the next COVIDs and pandemics

    AMGAD M. RABIE
    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.10, pp. 2133-2139, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.030057
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Antimicrobial Resistance: From Basic Science to Applied Approaches)
    Abstract Despite the global decline in the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, the disease still represents a major concern to the relevant scientific and medical communities. The primary concern of drug scientists, virologists, and other concerned specialists in this respect is to find ready-to-use suitable and potent anticoronaviral therapies that are broadly effective against the different species/strains of the coronaviruses in general, not only against the current and previous coronaviruses (e.g., the recently-appeared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 “SARS-CoV-2”), i.e., effective antiviral agents for treatment and/or prophylaxis of any coronaviral infections, including More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Future of the current anticoronaviral agents: A viewpoint on the validation for the next COVIDs and pandemics

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Indian medicinal plants are effective in the treatment and management of COVID-19

    SUBHASH CHANDRA, SANTWANA PALAI, EDINARDO FAGNER FERREIRA-MATIAS, IVO CAVALCANTE PITA-NETO, CíCERO LUCAS GOMES-RAMALHO, EDLANE MARTINS DE ANDRADE, RAY SILVA DE ALMEIDA, MARCELLO IRITI, HENRIQUE DOUGLAS MELO-COUTINHO
    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.4, pp. 677-695, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.026081
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Antimicrobial Resistance: From Basic Science to Applied Approaches)
    Abstract Indian medicinal plants are referred to as the “nectar of life” owing to their phytochemicals and bioactive complexes that are beneficial in treating diseases. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health issue without any proper medication. The indigenous plants of India can be exploited to control the precise signs of SARS-CoV-2. The Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) has advised routine usage of medicinal plants for COVID-19. Medicinal plants like Zingiber officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Withania somnifera, Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum, Allium sativum, Tinospora cordifolia, etc. have More >

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